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1.1. Outline the processes required to communicate using; speech, language

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Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between two or more individuals.

This can take several forms including reading/writing, speaking/listening, gestures (e.g. pointing), facial expressions (e.g. smiling to indicate happiness) and the use of pictures.

For this assessment criterion, you will be required to show that you understand the processes required for communication using speech and language.

Communicating using speech and language involves a complex set of processes that work together to enable comprehension and expression. Each of these categories encompasses a variety of subprocesses.

Speech Communication

Speech communication can be divided into the following processes:

Cognitive Processing:  The initiation of communication begins with an idea or thought. For multilingual individuals, selecting the appropriate language for the context is also required.

Language Processing: To process language, it is necessary to choose the right words to express the thought. This is often called Lexical Access. Syntactic Planning is also needed to construct sentences using correct grammar and Semantic Processing ensures that the words convey the intended meaning.

Speech Production: To produce clear speech, Phonological Planning determines the sounds required to pronounce the words and Motor Planning is used to plan the movements of the speech organs (tongue, lips, jaw, etc.). Articulation is the process of physically producing the speech sounds and Voice Modulation is used for adjusting pitch, tone, and volume for expression and clarity.

Feedback Mechanisms: Feedback mechanisms involves listening to one’s own speech for accuracy and adjustments (Auditory Feedback). In addition, Somatosensory Feedback uses the sense of touch and proprioception (awareness of the position and movement of the body) to monitor and adjust speech production.

Language Communication

Language communication is the process of using a shared common language (words and their grammatical structure) to convey meaning. It can be divided into the following processes:

Reception (Listening/Reading): This involves receiving and processing spoken words or written text (Auditory/Visual Processing) and identifying distinct speech sounds in spoken language (Phonemic Discrimination). Lexical Comprehension is  understanding the meanings of individual words and Syntactic Parsing is the decoding of the grammatical structure of sentences. Finally, Semantic Interpretation involves grasping the overall meaning of sentences or text.

Cognitive Processing: Contextual Integration is the process of relating the received information to the context or situation. In addition, Inference Making involves inferring meanings that are not explicitly stated. Finally, Memory Storage involves storing relevant information for short-term or long-term recall.

Response Formulation: Having processed and understood what has been heard, an individual will formulate their response using a the process of Speech Production (above).

Feedback and Adjustment: This involves reading non-verbal cues from the listener to gauge understanding or emotional reaction and then modifying speech or language in response to feedback or signs of misunderstanding.


Effective communication requires the seamless integration of language processing and speech production and is is often interactive, requiring continuous adjustment based on the listener’s responses.

External factors can influence the efficacy of communication using speech and language. This can include environmental factors such as noise levels, distractions, and setting as well as cultural and social norms (e.g. eye contact, handshakes etc.)

Understanding these processes highlights the complexity of human communication and the remarkable capacity of the brain to handle multiple tasks simultaneously during the act of communicating.

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