Standard 5 of the Care Certificate examines person-centred approaches to working practice.
It begins by discussing what person-centred approaches and values are and how to apply them to working practice.
It then looks at identifying and reporting concerns about an individual’s environment or treatment, minimising discomfort and promoting identity and self-esteem.
Learning Outcomes & Assessment Criteria
- 5.1 Understand person centred values
- 5.2 Understand working in a person centred way
- 5.2a Describe the importance of finding out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual
- 5.2b Explain why the changing needs of an individual must be reflected in their care and/or support plan
- 5.2c Explain the importance of supporting individuals to plan for their future wellbeing and fulfilment, including end-of-life care
- 5.3 Demonstrate awareness of the individuals immediate environment and make changes to address factors that may be causing discomfort or distress
- 5.3a Take appropriate steps to remove or minimise the environmental factors causing the discomfort or distress. This could include: Lighting, Noise, Temperature, Unpleasant odours
- 5.3b Report any concerns they have to the relevant person. This could include: Senior member of staff, Carer, Family member
- 5.4 Make others aware of any actions they may be undertaking that are causing discomfort or distress to individuals
- 5.5 Support individuals to minimise pain or discomfort
- 5.5a Ensure that where individuals have restricted movement or mobility that they are comfortable.
- 5.5b Recognise the signs that an individual is in pain or discomfort. This could include: Verbal reporting from the individual, Non-verbal communication, Changes in behaviour
- 5.5c Take appropriate action where there is pain or discomfort. This could include: Re-positioning, Reporting to a more senior member of staff, Giving prescribed pain relief medication, Ensure equipment or medical devices are working properly or in the correct position e.g. wheelchairs, prosthetics, catheter tubes
- 5.5d Remove or minimise any environmental factors causing pain or discomfort. These could include: Wet or soiled clothing or bed linen, Poorly positioned lighting, Noise
- 5.6 Support the individual to maintain their identity and self esteem
- 5.6a Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked to emotional and spiritual wellbeing
- 5.6b Demonstrate that their own attitudes and behaviours promote emotional and spiritual wellbeing
- 5.6c Support and encourage individuals own sense of identity and self-esteem
- 5.6d Report any concerns about the individual’s emotional and spiritual wellbeing to the appropriate person. This could include: Senior member of staff, Carer, Family member
- 5.7 Support the individual using person centred values
NOTE: Some of these assessment criteria are very similar to assessment criteria in the Level 2 Diploma in Care Unit on person-centred approaches. Therefore (to avoid duplication) some of these links go to this section.
Care Certificate Standard 5 Workbook Answers
Here, you will find exemplary answers for all the questions in the workbook for standard 5 of The Care Certificate – Work in a Person-Centred Way.
The blank workbook for standard 5 can be downloaded from the Skills for Care website (PDF format)
In health and social care, person-centred values are the guiding principles on how to support and assist in someone’s life. Finish the sentence below to describe in your own words what the word ‘values’ means.
The word ‘values’ means the core principles, ideals and standards that are important to an individual or organisation and by which govern their actions and behaviours.
Complete the table below to answer the following questions: 1. What does the value mean? 2. How would you put the value into practice in your day-to-day work? 3. Why is it important to work in a way that promotes this value when supporting an individual?
|Person-centred value||What is it?||How would you put this into practice?||Why is it important to work in a way that promotes this when supporting an individual?|
|Individuality||Everyone has their own unique values, opinions, ambitions and beliefs.||Encouraging individuals to maintain their identity and self-image by supporting them to do things like choosing their own clothes.||To ensure an individual can maintain their identity whilst receiving care and that their care plan is tailored to their own unique needs, wishes and preferences. Being able to express ones unique self is an essential ingredient of wellbeing.|
|Rights||Everyone has certain rights, freedoms and liberties as laid out in the Human Rights Act 1998.||Ensuring that individuals that you care for understand their rights and have people around them to stand up for their rights.||Helping individuals to know their rights and understand them can reduce the likelihood of abuse and helps to ensure that their voice is heard.|
|Choice||Unless they do not have capacity, each individual has the freedom to make their own choices about their lives.||Ensuring individuals have full or as near to full autonomy of their own lives and are free to make their own choices, even if care staff consider them to be unwise.||Freedom of choice is liberty that all individuals have both legally and ethically. With choice, individuals can be an active participant in their care and their lives rather than just a passive receiver.|
|Privacy||All individuals have the right to their privacy,, which can include time and space alone if they wish.||Ensuring an individual has somewhere that they can go to be alone and that care staff and others do not disturb them if they wish to left alone.||All individuals are entitled to privacy and to have their privacy respected. It can contribute towards wellbeing. Legally, the Data Protection Act 2018 makes it unlawful to share an individual's personal information without their consent.|
|Independence||Individuals should be encouraged to do as much as they can for themselves.||Encouraging individuals to do as much as possible for themselves and only providing support if they are unable to do it themselves. Promoting independence by helping individuals learn skills that can increase independence.||Independence can give individuals a higher quality of life because it gives them confidence to do things for themselves which can increase self-worth and self-esteem. Reducing an individual's reliance on others helps them to value themselves more and increases wellbeing.|
|Dignity||All individuals have the right to be valued and respected.||Showing respect when communicating and always asking for consent when performing actions such as helping them to move or sharing their personal information with others. Sensitive actions such as dressing and toileting should be performed in a way that is as dignified and respectful as possible for the individual.||Treating an individual with dignity helps them to maintain self-respect and self-worth which contribute to wellbeing.|
|Respect||Appreciating that individuals have their own views and beliefs and valuing them even if they differ from your own.||Understanding that each individual has their own beliefs and opinions and being considerate of them even if they differ from your own.||Everyone is different and nobody should be stigmatised for their beliefs and values.|
|Partnership||Individuals working together towards the same goals. This includes an individual that receives care collaborating with their care provider.||Encouraging individuals to collaborate with their care planning. Valuing one another's views and communicating effectively.||By including an individual in their care planning and valuing their input, you are valuing them as a unique person and ensuring their voice is heard. This contributes towards their self-esteem, confidence and overall wellbeing.|
Providing person-centred care or support that is specific to the individual’s needs, wishes and preferences will ensure that the individual is always at the centre of their care. Dignity is one of the values included in person-centred care. Complete the diagram below to identify ways in which you can promote dignity in your day-to-day work. An example has been provided for you.
- Supporting someone to join in an activity or discussion
- Always asking for consent before performing sensitive actions such as personal care
- Always asking for consent before sharing their personal information
- Following procedures correctly to ensure that personal care is performed in the most dignified way possible e.g. doing it in a private place, ensuring doors are closed, keeping genitalia covered etc.
- Addressing individuals by their preferred title e.g. Mr Smith, Dr Jones, Brenda etc.
Case study: You started supporting for Badiah last week. She moved to England from Laos last year. You have noticed that Badiah sometimes only picks at her meals without really eating anything. Badiah is wearing a head scarf and you are unsure whether this is a fashion item. Describe why it is important to find out Badiah’s history, preferences, wishes and needs in order to care for her in a person-centred way:
It is essential to discover Badiah’s history, preferences, wishes and needs to ensure that she receives the correct care for her own unique circumstances and that her beliefs are respected and taken into account in her care planning.
The first thing to do would be to find out her communication needs and the best way to converse with her so that she is able to express her wishes. She may not be fluent in English or be able to speak any English at all. Interpretation services may be needed as well as English lessons (if she wishes).
The headscarf may indicate religious beliefs or a cultural tradition that could have specific dietary requirements, which may explain why she doesn’t always eat her meals. Or she may have allergies to certain foodstuffs, so won’t eat unless she knows what it is. Or it could simply be that she doesn’t like the food provided. The true reasons will only be discovered by speaking to her, her family or somebody else that knows her well.
Until the conversations take place to establish an individual’s needs and wants, it is impossible to provide care in a person-centred.
Explain why it is important that an individual’s changing needs are reflected in their care and/or support plan. Give one example of when someone’s care plan would need to be changed or adjusted.
An individual’s care plan will contain information about their needs, wishes and preferences in their care provision.
However an individual’s requirements will naturally change over time, so it is important that their care plan is reviewed regularly and kept up to date to reflect this.
New care staff will need to understand each individual’s unique requirements and the care plan is the document that provides this information. If it is not up to date, the carer will be unable to give the individual the support they need. In addition, care plans are legal documents that can be used in evidence if a carer or organisation is litigated against.
For example, an individual that has dementia will gradually become less independent and less able to do things for themselves and so will require more support. When it is apparent that the individual is no longer able to do something, their care plan should be adjusted to specify this and explain what additional tasks carer’s must perform to support them. It is important to understand that a care plan is a working document and so should be updated whenever there is a change in an individual’s care and not just when a review takes place.
The person-centred approach has the understanding that every person has a need to fulfil their personal potential. Answer the questions below to show your understanding of the importance of supporting individuals to plan for their future wellbeing.
1. Why is it important to support individuals to plan for their future wellbeing and fulfilment?
Individuals should be supported to plan for their future wellbeing and fulfilment because this helps them to achieve their best possible quality of life, encompasses a person-centred approach and empowers the individual to make their own path through life.
2. What do you have to be aware of if working with individuals at the end of their life?
When working in end of life care, it is important to realise that the individuals you support will deteriorate as they approach the end of their lives and become less capable both mentally and physically. This can include aspects such as mobility, communication and cognition.
With this in mind, it is important to have conversations with individuals to find out about their needs, wishes and preferences and how they would like to be cared for if they are no longer able to communicate effectively with their care staff. They may wish to appoint an advocate, such as a family member, to speak on their behalf if they are unable to do so – this is called Advanced Care Planning (ACP).
In order to promote the individual’s wellbeing, they need to be happy with as many aspects of their life as possible. Complete the table below to answer the following questions.
1. What does each aspect tell us about a person?
|Wellbeing can relate to the following aspects of a person’s life:||What does each aspect tell us about a person?|
|Spiritual||Their beliefs, particularly what they believe to be the meaning of theirs and others lives.|
|Emotional||Feelings about themselves and others|
|Cultural||Participation and inclusion in a group. Traditions and festivals.|
|Religious or philosophical||What they believe in and usually what they believe will happen when they die.|
|Social||Interaction with family and friends. Creating and maintaining relationships.|
|Political||Societal beliefs and ideals. Who they vote for and who they want to see in power.|
|Sexual||Sexual orientation, preferences and people they are intimate with.|
|Physical||Activity and participation in sports, games or gym membership.|
|Mental||Having confidence and self-belief and setting and achieving own goals.|
2. Choose one of the aspects. How may this aspect affect a person’s identity and self-esteem?
Religious aspects of wellbeing can affect an individual’s identity and self-esteem in several ways.
Their religion may cause them to dress in certain ways (e.g. a burka etc.) or wear certain items of jewellery (e.g. a crucifix) which contributes to their unique identity. It can also affect what they eat or drink or the activities that they participate in.
Belief in a religion can provide comfort at difficult times in life and the religious group and wider network can also assist with this and promote self-esteem.
It is important that an individual is supported to maintain ties with their religious groups and that their beliefs are respected whilst they are receiving care.