Standard 15 of the Care Certificate is all about infection prevention and control.
It covers the routes of infection into the body, the importance of health and hygiene, personal protective equipment (PPE) and the safe handling of clinical waste.
On this page
Learning Outcomes & Assessment Criteria
- 15.1 Prevent the spread of infection
- 15.1a Describe the main ways an infection can get into the body
- 15.1b Demonstrate effective hand hygiene
- 15.1c Explain how their own health or hygiene might pose a risk to the individuals they support or work with
- 15.1d List common types of personal protective clothing, equipment and procedures and how and when to use them
- 15.1e Explain the principles of safe handling of infected or soiled linen and clinical waste
NOTE: Some of the assessment criteria here link to the same or similar criteria in the Level 2 Diploma section.
Care Certificate Standard 15 Workbook Answers
This page contains exemplary answers for all the questions in the workbook for standard 15 of The Care Certificate – Infection Prevention and Control.
The blank workbook for standard 15 can be downloaded from the Skills for Care website (PDF format)
In order to prevent the spread of infection, you need to know how harmful organisms (pathogens) can get into the body. Describe the three main ways of how an infection can get into the body.
Pathogens can get inside the body via three main routes. They are:
- Mouth/Nose – Pathogens can enter the body through the airways. If they are airborne, they can be breathed in or they could be transferred physically, for example, if an individual puts something that is infected into their mouth.
- Skin – Pathogens can be absorbed by the skin or enter the body via breaks in the skin, such as cuts.
- Intravenously – Pathogens can enter the bloodstream from contaminated sharps, such as needles or blades.
Workers have an important role in preventing infection spread, not only because they can spread pathogens between individuals but also because they can host or carry a pathogen. Therefore workers should practise good personal and hand hygiene. Think of someone you support and use three examples to explain how your own health or hygiene might pose a risk to this individual.
NOTE: This question asks for three examples but has five headings. To provide a comprehensive answer, we have provided five answers, but you will only need three.
If you are ill then you should not go into work because the pathogens that are causing your illness could be passed on to vulnerable individuals.
You should ensure that your clothing is washed and clean because dirt clothes can breed pathogens. This could transfer infection to others physically. If required, you should also wear your uniform and PPE clothing such as aprons and gloves.
You should ensure that you bathe or shower regularly to keep your skin clean and moisturised and make sure nails are trimmed and filed to prevent accidental scratching. This will reduce the likelihood of having pathogens on your skin that could infect others.
Skin should be kept clean and any cuts or abrasions should be covered with a plaster as there will be more pathogens in these areas that could potentially be passed on to others.
Our hands come into contact with a lot of pathogens, so regular hand-washing is essential using correct technique and antibacterial soap. If I didn’t wash my hands in between performing personal care between individuals, I could pass on an infection from one individual to another.
The law says workers should be provided with the correct materials and equipment to protect them from injury and, as far as possible, from the risk of infection while at work.
Complete the table below to list five examples of common types of personal protective clothing (PPE), equipment and procedures and how and when to use them.
|Type of PPE, equipment or procedure||How and when would you have to use it?|
|Gloves||When performing personal care or handling soiled linen. Should be put on and taken off inline with best practice.|
|Aprons||When performing personal care or handling soiled linen. Should be put on and taken off inline with best practice.|
|Wheelchair||To be used to transport individuals with mobility issued. Should be used in line with proper procedure and individual should be strapped in (with their consent).|
|Shoe guards||Should be used when assisting an individual to bathe or shower and in line with proper procedure.|
|Personal care policy and procedure||Should be used when assisting an individual with personal care to ensure proper processes are used and the individual's dignity is maintained.|
Handling infected waste and soiled linen in agreed ways can help to prevent the spread of pathogens. Explain how to deal with soiled linen and clinical waste in a safe way.
Actions to prevent the spread of pathogens when handling soiled linen
PPE such as gloves and aprons must be worn and linen should not come into contact with the skin. Hands should be thoroughly washed before and after handling soiled linen and it should be put into red bags and washed at high temperature.
Actions to prevent the spread of pathogens when disposing of clinical waste
PPE such as gloves and aprons must be worn and clinical waste should not come into contact with the skin. Hands should be thoroughly washed before and after handling clinical waste and it should be placed into yellow bags (or a sharps box in the case of needles and blades). It should then be passed to a specialist waste management company for disposal.