An brightly coloured individual on a pedestal surrounded by a ring of other individuals representing a definition of person centred values

1.1 Define Person Centred Values

The Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) defines person-centred values as:

Promoting person-centred values means carrying out your role in a way that respects the people you work with so that they can live the life that they choose to.

Essentially, person-centred values are values that have the individual at the core. In an adult health and social care setting, the individual would be the adult that is being supported.

The individual should be considered an expert adviser in the management of their support plan – no-one knows or understands their particular needs, desires, likes, preferences, wishes etc. more than they do themselves!

Sometimes, particularly in the past, care packages have been put together out of convenience by the provider and without the collaboration of the individuals who receive the support. However, this can lead to care packages that are not suitable for the individual – even the most well-meaning care worker can get it wrong if they do not consult with individual.

Old-fashioned views and opinions consider that individuals with learning disabilities, mental health conditions, dementia and other illnesses that affect cognition are unable to make sound choices for themselves and that others are needed to make decisions on their behalf be it family, social workers, care workers etc. Whilst there are still cases where others must act in the best interest of individuals (for example, if an individual is detained under the mental health act), on the whole most individuals are fully capable of making their own choices. And it is against the law for care workers to take away this right (see the Human Rights Act for further information).

Person-centred values are also about treating individuals with dignity and respect. Part of this, as stated above, is not restricting individuals from making their own choices (even if you do not agree with them yourself) but also encompasses communication, seeking consent, privacy and independence.

By working with person-centred values at the forefront of your practice, you can give the individuals you work with a better quality of life and help them to establish their own identity and raise their self-esteem.

Jackie Chan with hands on head and a confused look on face representing the importance of observing responses when communicating

1.3 Explain Why It Is Important To Observe An Individual’s Reactions When Communicating With Them

It is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them as there may be visual cues about their understanding and feelings that they are unable or unwilling to verbalise. Being mindful of these reactions can help you to communicate effectively, demonstrate that you are are listening, keep the conversation flowing and prevent misunderstandings.

For example, if the individual is nodding whilst you are speaking, and clarifying what you say, it probably means that they are listening and attentive and you should continue. If the individual looks confused, it may indicate that they do not understand and you may need to rephrase what you are saying in different words. If they are avoiding eye contact and looking in the opposite direction it may mean that they don’t like what you are saying or aren’t interested, so you may need to try a different approach or try again later.

Some reactions may be related to the environment or the situation and have no bearing on what you are communicating at all. Therefore, it is important to do your best to make an individual as comfortable as possible before the conversation starts to ensure they are receptive as possible to what you are saying.

Environmental factors can include:

  • Temperature
  • Lighting
  • Seating

And situational factors can include:

  • Unexpected meeting
  • Conversing immediately after a behaviour
  • Tiredness

You may be able to identify the reasons for an individual’s discomfort by observing them during conversation. For example if they are shivering it could indicate that they are cold and you can offer them a blanket or turn the heating up. Or if they seem tired and unresponsive it may tell you that they should get some rest and the conversation should be rescheduled.

In summary, without observing the person you are communicating with, it will be very difficult to identify and remove barriers to the communication and tell whether they have understood you correctly.

The words 'effective communication' between two silhouettes communicating via a tin can and string

1.2 Explain How Effective Communication Affects All Aspects of Own Work

Communication is very important in a health and social care setting and effective communication can have a positive affect on all aspects of your own work.

By communicating effectively with colleagues, managers and other professionals, you will be ensuring that the messages, instructions, questions and ideas that you are sending are received and understood correctly by the other party. Similarly, you will also ensure that you correctly understand what is being communicated to you by others.

Perhaps more than in any other industry, health and social care requires teams and professional partners to work as a single cohesive unit to provide the clients with a uniform care structure. Effective communication assures that everyone is on the same page and minimises mistakes.

In addition, health and social care requires a lot of record-keeping which must be accurate and legible (by law) so good reading and writing skills are a must. If things go wrong, sometimes the only way to back up your actions is by the documentation that you have written.

Effective communication is also critical the clients that you support.

If you are unable to understand one another then you will not be able to provide them with adequate support as you will be unable to understand their needs, preferences or wishes. There may also be other reasons why someone needs to communicate with you.

Some clients may not be verbal and so you will need to learn to communicate them using other means such as facial expressions, makaton or gestures. You may even need to become familiar with their language if they do not speak english.

One of the great things about being a care worker is that it opens up opportunities to improve all aspects of your communication and become a better speaker, listener, reader and writer. And these skills can be transferred to your personal life as well.

Two individuals forming an idea by communicating - an example of why people communicate

1.1 Identify Different Reasons People Communicate

The Short Answer

There are many different reasons why people communicate. These include:

  • Pleasure
  • To socialise
  • To make and maintain relationships
  • To ask questions
  • To request information
  • To offer choices
  • To advise/guide
  • To give support/reassurance
  • To express a need, desire or preference
  • To express a feeling
  • To share ideas
  • To share experiences
  • To discuss and debate
  • To show compassion/empathy
  • To give instructions
  • To encourage/motivate/persuade

The Long Answer

Communication is everyone’s panacea for everything ~ Tom Peters

Whether you agree with the quote above or not, it is undeniable that communication has a wide variety of functions and as part of your Level 2 Diploma, your tutor will expect you to be able to list and explain at least a handful of them. Most courses will ask you to write down just three or four reasons that individuals communicate, but do bear in mind that sometimes you may be asked for more.

The good news is I’ve compiled a handy list for you 🙂


Social interaction very much depends upon communication. Without it, it is very difficult to make and maintain relationships with partners, friends, family and even colleagues.

It is useful to remember that social communication is not just chatting to people that you know. Hugs, pats on the back and kissing (if appropriate) are all forms of communication. As are writing letters, emails etc.

And on top of this, for many people communicating socially is generally a very pleasurable experience, which helps relieve stress and anxiety.


Communication can be used to express or vocalise things such as feelings, needs, desires, preferences or wishes.

Again, this does not have to verbal. For example, a piece of music can communicate the writer’s (or player’s) sadness or happiness. Or the makaton sign for ‘tea; can express the signer’s desire for a cuppa!

Information sharing

Information is shared between people using communication. This may be sharing ideas, advice or experiences or to ask questions or request specific information. Or giving someone instructions for performing a task.

If I were to ask you the time and you were to tell me it is midnight, that is an example of using communication to share information. Another example would be a team meeting where you brainstorm ideas to come up with a solution to a problem.


Reassuring and supporting others is another way to utilise communication. As well as offering understanding and an arm around the shoulder, you can also demonstrate compassion and empathy

Example Answer: Identify Four Different Reasons Why People Communicate

People communicate for many different reasons. Socially, people communicate for pleasure, to ask questions or to offer choices. Communication can also be used to express a need or a feeling to others as well as share ideas and debate issues. In addition, communication can be used to show compassion and empathy towards others.


An individual helping with conflict resolution by standing between two angry individuals

Demonstrate How and When to Access Support About Resolving Conflicts

As a health and care worker, you may often be required to help with conflict resolution, so it is important that you are able to identify skills and approaches need for resolving conflicts and be able to find and utilise additional help and support if required.

When getting involved in a conflict, it is important to understand that all parties may initially be in a high emotional state, which makes them less likely to approach the issues in a logical fashion. You should give everyone a chance to explain how they are feeling from their perspective. This means listening intently to what they have to say, giving them respect and showing empathy and understanding. Everyone should be treated fairly and equitably as if an individual feels as though they are being ‘ganged up on’ they will be far less open to compromise later.

When everybody has had the opportunity to say their piece (and hopefully cooled down a little) it is time to negotiate and find out what (if any) compromises people are willing to make. It may be necessary to make it clear to all that there may be no hope of resolution if everybody is not willing to compromise a little and then nobody will get what they want.

Having drafted a potential resolution, it is essential to ensure that there is clarity and transparency and that everybody is happy. Active listening is important to make sure that everybody understands what will happen moving forward so that there are no misunderstandings that could lead to more issues in the future. Documenting the resolution and getting each party to sign it is recommended.

If nobody is willing to compromise or no resolution can be found, then you may need to obtain additional support.

Contacting a senior member of staff or your line manager for guidance will probably be your first port of call. Third-party professionals can also be useful, such as trained mediators. If all or some of the facts about the issue are unknown, it may be necessary to contact other professionals for advice. This could be a social worker or community nurse, for example.

If there is a degree of aggression in the conflict, it may be necessary to contact the police for assistance.

Demonstrate How and When to Access Support About Partnership Working

If you feel that your knowledge is limited with regards partnership working or you are finding working with a particular partner difficult, you should seek advice from your manager or a senior member of staff. Colleagues with relevant experience can also be an invaluable source of information. You can also seek advice from other individuals and agencies.

Identify Skills and Approaches Needed for Resolving Conflicts

It is extremely important to remain calm during conflict resolution and listen intently to the feelings and views of everyone involved so that you can empathise with them and work towards a compromise that suits everybody.

Demonstrate Ways of Working That Can Help Improve Partnership Working

Having good communication skills is essential for improving partnership working. Also, building strong relationships with others and giving accurate and timely information can help to build trust, which is also important to working effectively with partners. Knowing you own strengths and weaknesses as well as those of others and seeking training where needed can also be useful.

Explain Why it is Important to Work in Partnership with Others

Working in partnership with others is essential to provide the best possible care to an individual. Some tasks may require more than one person to execute safely and other tasks may require specialist training, qualifications or experience. Both would be impossible to complete alone. Seeking guidance from colleagues, managers and other professionals can improve the way you work as can speaking to others that know a service user well, such as their friends and family.

Implement Agreed Ways of Working

I implement agreed ways of working by ensuring that I read and keep up-to-date with all current policies and procedures as well as my client’s care plans and nationwide legislation and codes of practice. As this is a lot to remember, I sometimes have to refer back to the documentation in response to a particular situation. I always work with person-centred values and empower my clients to make their own decisions and live as independently as possible.

Acces Full and Up-To-Date Details of Agreed Ways of Working

Full and up-to-date details of my agreed ways of working can be accessed via my current job description and my employer’s policies, procedures and other documentation. I can also get more detailed information about how to work with a particular individual from their care plan. More generalised information can be found in legislation and codes of best practice. If I am unsure of anything, I can contact my manager for guidance

Describe Why it is Important to Adhere to the Agreed Scope of the Job Role

It is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role because it prevents employees from partaking in tasks that may require specialist training or experience to perform properly. This could result in an accident, litigation or monetary damages. By working within the scope of the job role, an employee knows exactly what their responsibilities and accountabilities are.

Describe Different Working Relationships in a Health & Social Care Setting

There are many different working relationships in a health & social care setting. these can include:

  • The relationship between support workers
  • The relationship between managers and subordinates
  • The relationships between employees and service users
  • The relationships between employees and the family and friends of a service user
  • The relationships between employees and other health & social care professionals

Explain How a Working Relationship is Different From a Personal Relationship

The relationships a health & social care employee have at work differ greatly from the personal relationships they may have outside of work. Working relationships are governed by professional boundaries including:


  • Legislation (e.g. the Data Protection Act 1998 prohibits the sharing of personal information that an employee may be privy to as part of their job)
  • Employer’s policies and procedures
  • Professional codes of conduct (e.g. the GSCC Codes of Practice for Social Workers)


I have provided a copy of my company’s Professional Relationships Policy & Procedure as evidence.


Personal relationships are much less formal and more emotive and can involve intimate touching and expression that would be illegal in a health & social care setting. In addition, a person can choose who they associate with outside work, whereas they have much less choice whilst at work and may have to work with people they do not particularly like.


It is important not to confuse working relationships with personal relationships as this could lead to an employee being biased, either positively or negatively, whilst making work-related decisions or carrying out their job responsibilities. It could also result in breaking the law or disciplinary action.

Safeguarding Adults: Everyone's Responsibility

Safeguarding: How to Recognise and Report Unsafe Practices

There are several unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of an individual. Examples include not documenting incidents or medical concerns, lack of good hand washing technique, not following health & safety guidelines, living in unsanitary conditions, poor diet and not having risk assessments in place but their are many, many more.


I ensure that all policies, procedures and good practices are followed to ensure the well-being of my clients. If I identify an unsafe practice, the first thing I do is make sure that my clients are safe from harm. I would then speak to my manager and offer suggestions about how the practice could be changed to make it safe. If I don’t feel comfortable approaching my manager (for example, if my manager is involved in the unsafe practice) or I do not feel that it has been dealt with correctly, I would address senior management with my concerns. If it is more serious, or still not dealt with to my satisfaction, I would whistle-blow and go straight to the local authority, CQC or the Police.


A good example is when I witnessed a member of staff encouraging a client to hug her on multiple occasions. Although I was fairly certain there was nothing sinister in her motives and there was no abuse, I felt it was unprofessional and crossed the staff-client boundary. I spoke about my concerns to my manager (with another manager present to act as witness) and was thanked for bringing it to their attention and assured they would speak with the member of staff concerned to stop it happening again. Had this not been dealt with properly by management, I would have been forced to report my concerns to CQC or local social services.

Reduce Abuse

How to Reduce the Likelihood of Abuse

There are many ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse within an organisation.


Person-centred values is an approach to care work that all care staff should be encouraged to follow. It involves treating a client as an individual and including them in any decisions that need to be made regarding their care and support. A client’s person-centred values can be described as individuality, independence, privacy, partnership, choice, dignity, rights and respect. Not only do these values teach staff best working practices but also helps vulnerable people have a say in the support they receive and help them to feel empowered. This results in a staff team that has the mindset to support client’s best interests, reducing the likelihood of abuse. In addition, risk of a abuse is lowered when individual’s have active participation in their care provision because they are more likely to understand their rights and know when something might not be quite right. They will also be more likely to speak up if they have concerns. This goes hand-in-hand with promoting an individual’s rights and choices. Client’s should be free to make their own life choices and take calculated risks as long as it is unlikely to harm themselves or others or is illegal.


Personally, I treat everyone with the same level of respect that I would expect to receive myself, so person-centred values come naturally to me. I encourage all clients to take an active role in planning their activities and inform them of their rights in a manner that they understand when applicable. I also try to allow them the freedom and independence to be in control of their own lives, only stepping in to provide guidance if I feel that their actions may be detrimental to themselves or others.


Another way to reduce the likelihood of abuse is to have an accessible complaints procedure in place. This gives an individual a voice and a course of action should they feel they are being treated inappropriately.

All my clients are aware of the complaints procedure we have in place and know that they can have assistance in filling it out if they need to. Sometimes this results in false complaints such as when a client put in a complaint about a member of staff because he didn’t have enough money to buy a phone charger and failed to understand that it was not the member of staff’s fault but the fact that he had already spent all his money on something else but it is important that the system remains in place to catch any legitimate complaints. Our complaints procedure was used to great effect when a member of staff was permanently moved without warning to another service, resulting in the clients becoming upset because they had a great working relationship with said member of staff. The clients asked me what they could do about it and I informed them that although head office could put staff in whichever service they deemed fit, the client’s opinions could be passed on via a complaints form. I helped the clients to fill in their complaints (ensuring only what they said was documented and with another member of staff present to act as witness) and passed them on to head office. The client’s views were read by senior management and they made a u-turn on their decision.

Sign saying 'Report Abuse'

National and Local Contexts of Safeguarding and Protection from Abuse

There are a number of different agencies, policies and systems that have important roles to play in safeguarding vulnerable people.

On a national level, legislation acts as the framework within which all other groups can operate lawfully. This includes:

  • The Care Act 2014 – makes safeguarding a corporate duty for local councils (supersedes No Secrets Policy Document 2000.
  • Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 – helps prevent unsuitable persons from gaining access to vulnerable people through their work.


  • Health & Social Care Act 2008 – regulations for the health and social care industry


  • Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 – protects whistle-blowers from victimisation




Several national agencies have sprung up as a result of the above legislation being passed. For example, the Disclosure Barring Service (DBS) was formed after the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act came into force and it is their responsibility to keep a database of people that are deemed unsafe to work with vulnerable adults and children so that employers can make informed recruitment decisions. Also, the Care Quality Commission (CQC) came about following the passing of the Health & Social Care Act 2008. It is CQC’s responsibility to ensure organisations that provide care services are meeting national standards.

The Metropolitan Police are another national organisation that have a role to play in safeguarding vulnerable adults. It is their responsibility to investigate claims of abuse.

There are also agencies that operate on a local level to help safeguard vulnerable adults, including:

  • In Warwickshire, the Adult Social Care Team can be contacted on 01926 410 410 during office hours.
  • At other times, the Social Care Emergency Duty Service can be contacted on 01926 886 922.
  • In more serious incidents, Nuneaton Police can be contacted on 02476 641 111

Despite the many policies and agencies involved in the protection of vulnerable adults, there have still been many cases of abuse occurring within a care setting. One example that was heavily reported in the news was the abuse that occurred at Winterbourne View Private Hospital. In 2011, a BBC Panorama investigation revealed that patients were routinely neglected, assaulted and restrained by care staff. Although various organisations were alerted to the malpractices, they were not followed through, resulting in local social services, police, the NHS and CQC being implicated for failing to do their duty. As a result of the investigation, several care staff at Winterbourne View were prosecuted and the hospital was closed down.

If I required further information or advice about safeguarding, I would probably go to my manager or consult with other members of my team in the first instance. I could also speak to other employees and look at the company’s vast library of policies and procedures, particularly the Safeguarding Policy, which is attached to this document. Other sources of information would include the local authority, CQC and my own independent research using books and the Internet.

Two hands with the words 'Speak Out' written on the palms

Responding to Suspected or Alleged Abuse

If you suspect that an individual is being abused, it is imperative that you tell them of the reasons for your concerns and attempt to build a dialogue with them to try and establish what has happened. You should remain calm and listen intently to anything they may tell you without ‘putting words into their mouth’ and without pressing for information that they unwilling to give. If they ask you not to tell anyone, explain that you have a duty of care to report anything that is illegal or affects their well-being. Also explain that they have done the right thing by telling you and that you will take appropriate steps to resolve the problem and protect them from further abuse.

After speaking with the individual, you should preserve any evidence of abuse that is available and, at the earliest opportunity, make a written record of the conversation keeping only to the facts and the words that the individual used. It should then be reported to your manager, or, if your manager is implicated in the abuse, to the next manager up in the organisations hierarchy.

Depending on the circumstances, you may also need to report suspected abuse to the police, local social services and/or CQC (if your organisation does not respond appropriately), however confidentiality is paramount and you should work on a ‘need to know’ basis.

The same process should be used if an individual alleges to you that abuse has taken place. All allegations should be taken seriously.

As mentioned above, in some cases there will be physical evidence of abuse having taken place. It is very important to preserve this evidence. You can do this by sealing off the area where the abuse has taken place and leaving everything untouched, not washing soiled or bloodied clothing and discouraging the individual from washing (particularly if it is a case of sexual abuse). As well as recording the victim’s account of the abuse, you should also record any injuries they may have sustained.

Close up dictionary definition of 'abuse'

Types, Signs and Symptoms of Abuse

It is important to understand the different types of abuse so that you can spot the signs that it may be taking place and protect an individual from further abuse. The table below explains types of abuse and their symptoms.

Physical abusePhysical abuse occurs when an abuser makes physical contact with an individual with the intention of causing physical pain or injury. Bruises, burns, fractures, lacerations, sores, cowering & flinching
Sexual abuseSexual abuse is when an abuser forces or tricks an individual into a non-consensual sexual behaviour. Although this can include penetration, it doesn’t have to – touching and showing pornography material are also classed as sexual abuse.Genital & anal infections and bleeding, torn, soiled or bloodied underwear, change in character
Emotional/psychological abuseEmotional abuse is when an abuser subjects an individual to behaviours that can result in psychological trauma. Verbal aggression, bullying and domination are examples of emotional abuse.Depression, anxiety, isolation, fear, agitation, self-mutilation, low self-esteem & self-confidence.
Financial abuseFinancial abuse is when an abuser attempts to steal from or defraud an individual. This can extend to tricking an individual into giving away money or property and preventing an individual from making their own financial decisions. Missing money/property, unexplained bank withdrawals, isolation from friends/family, fear, anxiety, embarrassment.
Institutional abuseInstitutional abuse occurs when the convenience of an institution and its staff are put before the needs and lifestyles of an individual. This can include over-medication,  unreasonable restrictions of activity, lack of privacy etc.Staff entering service users rooms without knocking, lack of food, clothing & possessions, lack of flexibility with bedtimes, mealtimes etc.,  poorly trained & unsupervised staff, poorly managed setting
Self-neglectSelf-neglect is when an individual does not attend to their basic needs, such as washing, eating and clothing.Poor personal hygiene, malnutrition, inappropriate or dirty clothing, not taking medication.
Neglect by othersNeglect occurs when a carer either deliberately or unintentionally fails to provide adequate care to an individual.Bedsores, inappropriate or dirty clothing, hunger, unwashed.


NOTE: The signs and symptoms above are by no means exhaustive and will vary between individuals.

Some individuals are unable to protect themselves from abuse, for example someone with a mental disability may not have the capacity to understand that they are being abused, so it is vital that others, such as family or support staff are there to look out for their well-being. In addition, there are many factors that make an individual more vulnerable to abuse. Again, reduced mental capacity can lead to an individual being taken advantage of as can low self-esteem, depression and other mental illnesses such as paranoid schizophrenia. Some factors can also be directly related to the abuser, for example, if they have been abused themselves, if they are stressed out with their own personal problems or if they have a lack of training. And, of course, if an individual is isolated and has no-one to protect them, they are also much more susceptible to being abused.

Picture of a diploma with the words 'Diploma or NVQ?'

The Difference Between an NVQ and Diploma in Health & Social Care

You’ve probably seen that I use the words ‘NVQ’ and ‘Diploma’ interchangeably around this website and I’ve had a few messages from visitors asking me what the difference between the two is. So, I will try to explain…

In a nutshell

Essentially, an NVQ in health and social care is the same as a diploma in health and social care. The only difference is that a while ago the name changed. However, the levels remained the same so, for example, a Level 3 Diploma is the same as a Level 3 NVQ.

The history

For many years, National Vocational Qualifications or NVQs were the standard work-based qualification that recognised and assessed employees in a wide range of career paths. NVQ’s were available in hairdressing, plumbing, administration, horticulture and many other subjects.

In 2015, NVQs were discontinued and replaced by Diplomas under the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF).

And then in early 2018, the QCF Diploma was replaced by the Regulated Qualifications Framework (RQF) Diploma.

Do workers need to upgrade their qualification?

Although going forward, only RQF Diplomas can be commissioned for new learners, NVQ and QCF qualifications still remain relevant and there is no need to ‘upgrade’ to the newer standard. All the standards carry the same amount of weight and are equivalent to one another.

Level 2 NVQ = Level 2 QCF Diploma = Level 2 RQF Diploma

Also, learners that have started studying under the QCF framework will be able to continue. However, employers should ensure that their employees training is kept up-to-date and refreshers provided where necessary.

Final word

So if NVQs are obsolete, you may be asking why I continue to use the word on my website.

This is simply because a great many people in the health and social care sector still refer to Diplomas as NVQs and, consequently, many visitors to this website find it my typing a phrase with the word ‘NVQ’ in it. If I didn’t use the word ‘NVQ’, less people would find and get help from me.

Over time, I expect the word to be used less and less until at some future point in time only the word ‘Diploma’ is used. And then I will be able to remove all reference of ‘NVQ’ from these webpages.

Employee Rights and Responsibilities in the Workplace with an image of many fists held in the air in the background

1.2a Describe Your Employment Rights and Responsibilities

As an employee, you have certain rights in your day-to-day employment. Conversely, you also have certain responsibilities towards your employer. Rights and responsibilities will vary between roles, contacts and seniority, however many will be shared between all employees. Here is a list of some of the things that you need to be aware of in your day-to-day role.


There are a number of key pieces of legislation that you should be aware of as an employee. Although you will not be expected to read through the entire parliamentary acts, you should have a basic understanding of the aspects that apply to you.

Health & Safety at Work Act 1974

This act makes employers responsible for the health, safety and welfare of their employees as well as others on work premises and the general public as a whole. All employees have the right to expect to work in a safe environment, as far as is practicably possible. This doesn’t mean that it will be risk-free – if that were the case, firefighters for example would not be able to perform their duty – but all potential hazards should be risk assessed and the risks minimised.

Employers must consult with staff about potential hazards and also have reporting procedures in place as well as a policy for how they are dealt with. It is the employers responsibility to provide employees with any equipment they may need for their job roles including any Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and have undergone adequate training in how to use said equipment.

Employees also have responsibilities under the Health & Safety Act. They must take care of their own health and safety as well as that of others around them including colleagues, partners and the general public. Employees must co-operate with their employer to ensure risk is minimised in their work. This can include attending essential training, reporting safety concerns and even stopping work if they feel the risk is too high to continue.

Data Protection Act 2018 (includes General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR)

This act protects personal and identifiable information and restricts how it can be used, stored and shared. As an employee, you can expect your employer to protect your personal information but you also have the responsibility to keep the personal information of others secure.

Working Time Regulations 1998

The Working Time Directive means that employers cannot expect employees to work more than 48 hours per week (usually averaged out over a 17-week period). However, employees do have the option to opt out of this regulation if they want to work more hours. They can opt back in again at any time by giving their employer 7-days notice.

Contract of Employment

A contract is a document that sets out the details of the agreement between employee and employer.

It will specify things like how many hours an employee is contracted for, the salary, the number of days annual leave entitlement and other perks and benefits offered. As mentioned earlier in the Working Time Regulations , weekly hours should not be more than 48 hours per week unless the employee has opted out.

National Living Wage/National Minimum Wage

At the time of writing the minimum wage in the UK for 25s and over is £7.83, rising to £8.21 in April 2019. There is a sliding scale of rates for under 25s. It is against the law for an employer to pay less than the National Living Wage/Minimum Wage.

Annual Leave

Annual leave is the number of days paid holiday an employee can take each year. Most full-time employees are entitled to 5.6 weeks annual leave per year – this can include bank holidays at the employer’s discretion.

Agreed Ways of Working

It is an employees responsibility to work in the safe and agreed ways that the employer sets out in their policies and procedures. This ensures that employees work lawfully and provide the levels of care that the employer expects. Failure to comply could lead to harm being caused to individuals and/or disciplinary action.

As well as following company policies and procedures, agreed ways of working can also include following individual client’s care plans accurately, their rights are upheld and they are safeguarded from abuse.

In addition errors should be reported rather than covered up to reduce their impact and act as a learning opportunity to minimise the risk of it happening again. Everyone makes mistakes and employers understand this and should promote trust and transparency within their workplace culture.

Equality & Discrimination

The Equality Act 2010 protects people from discrimination and ensures all employees are treated fairly. It also highlights nine protected characteristics that it is unlawful to discriminate against:

  • age
  • disability
  • gender reassignment
  • marriage and civil partnership
  • pregnancy and maternity
  • race
  • religion or belief
  • sex
  • sexual orientation

Values and Beliefs

1.1d Explain how your previous experiences, attitudes and beliefs may affect the way you work

We are all diverse individuals with different experiences, views , opinions and beliefs. We don’t all agree on everything and shouldn’t have to, however, at work we should try to remain impartial and not let our attitudes influence the way that we provide support.

Here are some examples of how the beliefs and views of a health and social care worker could influence the support they provide:

  • A vegan not wanting to support a client to provide meat-based meals.
  • Assuming an individual is suffering from physical/domestic abuse because they have bruises (although you should still inform your manager and/or the safeguarding team).
  • Assuming someone who rarely communicates cannot hear you.
  • Not supporting someone to celebrate a religious festival because you believe in a different religion.
  • Encouraging an individual to participate in a religious festival that is important to you but not them.
  • Not all individuals with a particular condition behave in the same way.

Further information and examples can be found below:

Happy Employees

1.1c Demonstrate that you are working in accordance with the agreed ways of working with your employer

Your employer should inform you of your agreed ways of working and monitor your work to ensure you work in the way that they want.

To get an idea of how your employer wants you to work, you should speak to your manager, or preferably the owner of the company to understand the core values that your company stands for. Many companies also have a Vision Statement and Mission Statement that you can use to guide you in your work. You may be able to find these on the company website.

The word 'standard' made out of brightly coloured building blocks

1.1b List the Standards, Codes of Conduct and Practices that Relate to your Role

Everyone that delivers care in the health and social care sector must complete The Care Certificate to ensure that they have a the set of skills needed to provide the minimum standards. It ensures consistency of skills across the industry.

Legislation such as The Care Act 2014 describes (amongst other things) the obligations of the Local Authority for assessing people’s needs and eligibility for public funded care and support.

Skills for Care have produced a Code of Conduct that sets out the standards that all healthcare workers should adhere to and the minimum level of care all clients should expect.

The Six C’s, originally produced for nursing staff but then expanded to include the whole health and social care sector, are recognised values that all workers should keep to the forefront of their minds. They are:

  1. Care: Care is our core business and that of our organisations, and the care we deliver helps the individual person and improves the health of the whole community. Caring defines us and our work. People receiving care expect it to be right for them, consistently, throughout every stage of their life.
  2. Compassion: Compassion is how care is given through relationships based on empathy, respect and dignity – it can also be described as intelligent kindness, and is central to how people perceive their care.
  3. Competence: Competence means all those in caring roles must have the ability to understand an individual’s health and social needs and the expertise, clinical and technical knowledge to deliver effective care and treatments based on research and evidence.
  4. Communication: Communication is central to successful caring relationships and to effective team working. Listening is as important as what we say and do and essential for “no decision about me without me”. Communication is the key to a good workplace with benefits for those in our care and staff alike.
  5. Courage: Courage enables us to do the right thing for the people we care for, to speak up when we have concerns and to have the personal strength and vision to innovate and to embrace new ways of working.
  6. Commitment: A commitment to our patients and populations is a cornerstone of what we do. We need to build on our commitment to improve the care and experience of our patients, to take action to make this vision and strategy a reality for all and meet the health, care and support challenges ahead.

SOURCE: Royal College of Nursing (


Carer pushing a client in a wheelchair. Both look really happy.

1.1a Describe Your Main Duties & Responsibilities

The answer to this question will vary depending on your own particular role. You may work at a nursing home, in a supported living setting or day centre and each person’s responsibilities towards the people they support will be different. You may be working with individuals that have learning disabilities, physical disabilities or mental health conditions. They may be adults or children. Seniority of your position will also affect your job role.

Details of your role and responsibilities will be given to you when you start your job in the form of a job description and should be explored more deeply with your manager during your induction period. You should ask your manager about anything you are not sure about or, if you have one, refer to your employee handbook. If you work for a larger company, they may have a Human Resources department that can offer further advice and guidance.

If you have also enrolled to do your NVQ/Diploma some of the information in your ERR (Employment Responsibilities and Rights in Health & Social Care) booklet will help you to understand your job role.

An example job description may look like this:

Job Description – Carer

Main function of the job:
(Note: In addition to these functions employees are required to carry out such duties as may reasonably be required).

  • To maintain care skills at a current level, and undertake such training and development as may from time-to-time be required to maintain that currency of practice.
  • To provide care in accordance with current best practice, according to policy and procedures, agreed standards, legislative requirements, relevant regulations under the direction of the Manager, and within the financial plans agreed from time-to-time.

Working within the organisation:
1. Develop effective working relationships with the other employees within the Agency.
2. Support an open, positive and inclusive working culture.
3. Participate in the development of the Agency’s policies.
4. Participate in evaluation of the Agency against agreed organisational goals, business, and quality
5. Work to establish effective employer-employee relationships.
6. Minimise legal risks.
7. Participate in the maintenance of the Agency’s management information systems.
8. Assist in the formulation and implementation of care policies and procedures.
9. Assist in the implementation and maintenance of the standards required by legislation related to the
registration of the Agency.
10. Act within the Agency’s budget based on the Agency’s objectives and within the projected revenue.
11. Work in a cost-effective manner.
12. Be involved in the implementation and maintenance of the Agency’s quality assurance programme.
13. Assist in the design and administration of an evaluation of the care standards and care service
14. Systematically solve day-to-day problematical issues which arise.

Care Services:
1. Assist in the development of the philosophy, goals and objectives for the care practice.
2. Assist in the assessment of the effectiveness of care implementation and delivery
3. Implement action to meet and maintain care standards.
4. Work in cooperation with members of multi-disciplinary health teams in order to maximise opportunities for
Client therapeutic care.
5. Ensure Client rights are protected.
6. Encourage a model of self-care and Client rehabilitation.
7. Record relevant activities in Care Plans.
8. Evaluate standards of care competence.

Professional Long Term Care Leadership:
1. Encourage innovative methods for the delivery of care.
2. Encourage health promotion within care strategies.
3. Seek opportunities for personal and professional growth.
4. Promote a positive image for residency and employment within the Agency.

Human Resources:
1. Cooperate with the implementation, evaluation, orientation and induction of all new employees.
2. Support the implementation of the Agency’s policies and procedures.
3. Support the effective resolution of team conflicts.
4. Support a work atmosphere which promotes a high quality of work life.
5. Support and maintain a culture of performance and excellence.

The hands of two individuals joined together in a handshake representing partnership working

4.1c Effective Partnership Working

List the key features of effective partnership working – these may be different for different types of partnerships.

Effective partnership working involves two or more groups coming together to achieve a common aim or purpose. The benefits include pooled resources, sharing of expertise and responsibility/power. For it to work there must be mutual respect and understanding between the partners and a level of trust.

Consider how you might strengthen those networks.

Partnerships can be strengthened by sharing information, knowledge and expertise as well as each party being trustworthy and reliable. Over time, these bonds should improve. Regular meetings and communication between all parties is also essential for partnership working to be successful.

Consider how you might measure the effectiveness of these relationships – what you need to do, who needs to be involved and how often.

As stated above regular communication is paramount for effective partnership working. Representatives from each party should meet regularly to discuss ideas and progress. Ideally, these would be the same representatives each time. Efficacy should be measured by the outcomes that that are produced, which should be in line with the initial goals agreed by all parties.

Skills for Care Logo (Aspiring Managers)

Aspiring Manager’s Workshop Case Study: Daniel Dutton (Me)

Just a quick post to let you know I recently finished my Aspiring Manager’s Program in Leadership and Management and Skills for Care have published a case study of me.

You can check it out here:

For the record, I can thoroughly recommend the training.


4.1b Identify one person you work with and find out how you might support them to have better links with their community. Make sure you discuss it with them and maybe even a carer or relative.

What can help them to maintain their involvement or achieve their goals? Together with the
individual identify one or two links which might be developed to add value to their life. Identify in
particular how this partnership might ensure better outcomes for the individual. Reflect on how
you might encourage those links further and what you might need to put into practice to support
and maintain them.

I work with a client that was quite lonely and expressed that he wanted to have friends and a girlfriend, however he seldom left the house and therefore never had the opportunities to meet people.

I spoke to the client several times to explain that the only way to meet people that could become friends would be to go out and join local groups or take part in activities. Then we researched various activities in the local area that he could try out to see if he liked them.

Over a period of several weeks, we went to several activities, most of which he didn’t like but there were some he enjoyed and so he continued to participate. These were two local discos for people with learning disabilities and a games night (darts, pool etc.) This resulted in a partnership between the client, his staff and the activity organisers.

Over time, he made friends and eventually got himself a girlfriend. This resulted in further partnership links between his staff team and his friends/girlfriend’s staff teams.

Group of professionals holding hands representing partnership working

4.1a Identify new networks that might support the service you provide and the business. These could be social or professional. They may be to support staff, the people who access care and support, or to support yourself.

You could carry out this exercise with your staff, or a group of residents, or relatives group. You
might be surprised at some of the suggestions!

Potential Partner
1. Registered Managers Network6. Care Quality Commission
2. Social Services7. Local Colleges
3. Local Charities8. Local Activity Groups
4. Chamber of Commerce9. Community Nurses
5. Skills for Care10. Pharmacies

Carry out a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis of partnership
working with current partners as well as possible new ones.

  • Combined knowledge
  • Teamwork
  • Poaching Staff/Clients
  • May be disagreements
  • Can work on future projects together
  • Different agendas could mean being forced into something that is not beneficial to us
Old lady in Hospital Bed (Mrs. Horton)

3.3b Information Sharing Case Study (Mrs. Horton)

Mrs Horton is 81 years old and has lived alone in her two bedroomed house for many years. She is frail and has difficulty moving around due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which leaves her breathless after only a little exertion. She has home care visits, three times a day to support her with getting up, getting lunch, and preparing her evening meal whilst also helping her to undress for bed. She has a stair lift to help her upstairs where the only available toilet is.

She has a son who lives locally but works away most of the time and she has a daughter who lives 200 miles away and is unable to drive. A friend collects her to take her to church every week and another friend takes her to the hairdressers every week. Currently she also has a visit from the diabetic nurse every week.

Two weeks ago, she had a fall and was admitted to hospital. Following observation and some treatment, she is now ready to return home, with new medication.

Use this template to consider information that should be shared to support Mrs Horton.

Consider what information needed to be shared at the point of admission.
InformationBy whomWith whomWhen
Name, address, details of accidentParamedicsHospital admissionsAdmission
Medical history and current medicationPrimary Care (GP, Diabetes Nurse)Hospital admissionsAdmission
Mrs. Horton’s condition (if consent given)Hospital NursesMrs Horton’s Family and Friends and Support StaffAdmission
Consider what information needed to be shared before Mrs. Horton returns home.
InformationBy whomWith whomWhen
New Medication and ConditionHospitalMrs Horton’s Family/Friends/Support StaffDischarge
Medication, treatment and ConditionHospitalPrimary Care (GP, Diabetes Nurse)Discharge
What steps do you need to take in order to share this information?
Where possible, consent should be obtained from Mrs. Horton before any information sharing goes ahead. Where this is not possible, a judgment call will need to be made and information should only be shared on a need to know basis
Consider the possible consequences of not sharing information in this situation
Family, friends and support staff would worry about Mrs. Horton when they visited her home and found her not there. Medical professionals would not have full access to her medical history and current medication so may give her inaccurate advice (e.g. putting her on medication which is incompatible with medication she is already taking). Medical staff would not know her name or how to address her.