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2.1. Identify examples of the type of environments and situations that might contribute to an individual experiencing sensory overload.

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Sensory overload occurs when one or more of the body’s senses experiences over-stimulation from the environment. For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often have heightened or altered sensory sensitivities, various environments and situations can contribute to sensory overload. Here are some examples:

  • Crowded Places: Environments with a lot of people, such as shopping malls, public transportation, schools, or social events, can be overwhelming. The combination of noise, visual stimuli (like bright lights and moving crowds), and the potential for unexpected physical contact can contribute to sensory overload.
  • Loud Environments: Places with high levels of noise, such as concerts, festivals, busy urban streets, or construction sites, can be particularly challenging. Individuals with auditory sensitivities may find these environments extremely stressful.
  • Bright or Fluorescent Lighting: Environments with intense or fluorescent lighting, such as supermarkets, offices, or classrooms, can be difficult for individuals with visual sensitivities. The glare and flicker of these lights can be overstimulating.
  • Environments with Strong Smells: Places with strong odours, whether pleasant or unpleasant, can induce sensory overload. This includes perfume stores, food markets, restaurants, or areas with heavy traffic and exhaust fumes.
  • Unstructured or Unpredictable Environments: Environments where there is a lack of routine or predictability, such as parties, amusement parks, or large family gatherings, can contribute to sensory overload. The unpredictability and lack of control over the environment can be overwhelming.
  • Clothing and Physical Contact: Situations where uncomfortable clothing is worn (e.g., stiff, itchy fabrics) or where there is unexpected or undesired physical contact can also lead to sensory overload.
  • Technological and Media Stimulation: Environments with multiple screens, bright displays, or continuous background media, such as television or radio, can be overstimulating, especially when combined with other sensory inputs.
  • Cluttered or Visually Complex Spaces: Spaces that are cluttered or visually complex can be overstimulating due to the excess of visual information to process. This can include rooms with lots of decorations, posters, or varying patterns.

Understanding and modifying these environments to make them more sensory-friendly can greatly assist individuals with ASD in managing sensory overload. This can involve reducing noise levels, providing quiet spaces, controlling lighting, and allowing for personal space and sensory breaks as needed. Individual preferences and sensitivities vary widely, so personalizing strategies to accommodate specific needs is essential.

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