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2.2. Give examples of how individuals with autism may respond when experiencing sensory overload.

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When individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience sensory overload, their responses can vary widely, reflecting the individual’s unique sensory processing profile and coping mechanisms. Sensory overload occurs when the sensory input one receives is more intense, frequent, or prolonged than the individual can effectively process. Here are some examples of how individuals with autism may respond in such situations:

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  • Meltdowns: Although I am not keen on this term, it is perhaps the most well-known response, where the individual experiences an intense reaction that can include crying, yelling, or aggressive behavior. Meltdowns are often a result of overwhelming sensory input and are not within the individual’s control.
  • Shutdowns: In contrast to meltdowns, some individuals may respond to sensory overload with a shutdown, where they withdraw, become non-responsive, or dissociate from the situation. This might look like zoning out, becoming very still, or not responding to communication from others.
  • Physical Responses: This can include covering ears to block out noise, squinting or closing eyes to reduce visual input, or fleeing the environment to escape the overwhelming sensory experience.
  • Increased Stimulatory Behaviors: An individual might increase self-stimulatory behaviours (stimming), such as rocking, hand-flapping, or repeating sounds or words. These behaviours can be a coping mechanism to manage sensory overload.
  • Irritability or Agitation: Sensory overload can manifest in increased irritability, agitation, or anxiety. The individual might become easily upset, agitated by small annoyances, or appear generally anxious.
  • Physical Symptoms: Some individuals might experience physical symptoms like headaches, stomachaches, or feeling dizzy, which are physical manifestations of the distress caused by sensory overload.
  • Avoidance Behaviours: An individual might engage in avoidance behaviours, such as refusing to enter certain environments, resisting participation in activities, or avoiding social interactions to reduce sensory input.
  • Verbal Outbursts or Crying: Especially in children, sensory overload can lead to crying, screaming, or verbal outbursts. These are often expressions of distress and a way of communicating discomfort.
  • Difficulty Concentrating: Sensory overload can cause significant difficulties in focusing or maintaining attention, as the individual struggles to filter out the excessive sensory input.
  • Seeking Reassurance or Comfort: In response to overwhelming sensory input, some individuals might seek comfort or reassurance from a trusted person or object, like a parent, caregiver, or a familiar item.

It’s important to remember that these responses are not behaviours of choice but are often involuntary reactions to an overwhelming sensory environment. Recognizing the signs of sensory overload and providing appropriate support and accommodations can help individuals with ASD manage their sensory experiences more effectively.

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