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Explain what is meant by: diversity, equality, inclusion, discrimination


This page is designed to answer the following questions:

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Diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination are important terms to understand for the Level 2 Diploma Unit ‘Equality and Diversity in Care Settings’.




Diversity describes the different traits and characteristics of individuals that make them unique. This can include (but is not limited to) age, appearance, ability, role, values, culture, beliefs, sexual orientation and gender.

We are all diverse individuals, and our differences from one another should be celebrated.



Equality is ensuring that everybody is treated fairly and gets the same opportunities. This can mean making adjustments to accommodate an individual’s needs.


For example, a visually impaired individual may need a document in audio/braille format or somebody to read a printed format for them so that they have the same opportunity (to obtain information) as other individuals that can read the text.



Inclusion is ensuring that all individuals are included in a group or activity and are given the opportunity to participate if that is their wish.

Like equality, it is about valuing individuals and treating them fairly.



Discrimination is excluding individuals or not treating them fairly because of their differences.


This may be done unintentionally, which is why it is important to be aware of these terms. Extreme cases of deliberate discrimination include harassment and hate crimes.

The Equality Act 2010 makes discrimination unlawful.


Example question and answer

Using the table below, explain in your own words what each term means. Give one example from care practice to illustrate your explanations.

Explanation Example
Diversity Recognising the differences in individuals, being positive about those differences and respecting them.An employer working with an employee to create a flexible working pattern to accommodate the holy days of their religious beliefs.
Equality Giving all individuals equal opportunities and access, regardless of their gender, gender reassignment, age, disability, religion, beliefs, sexual orientation and race.Replacing steps with a ramp at the library so that individuals with conditions that affect their mobility can access the facility easily.
InclusionRecognising that although everybody is different, we are all human beings, and everyone has the right to feel included in a group, regardless of their characteristics.Ensuring a workshop about sexual health includes information about both heterosexual and homosexual sexual health.
DiscriminationPrejudices or less favourable treatment of an individual based on a group they belong to or are assumed to belong to.An employee not getting a promotion based on the fact that they are in their sixties and may retire soon.
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