Evaluate the effectiveness of proactive strategies on mitigating challenging behaviours

As part of my job role, I observe and manage challenging behaviour and use this knowledge to implement proactive strategies that can mitigate future similar behaviours. This is an ongoing process and involves constantly working with the individuals concerned to establish what works and what doesn’t and tweaking the strategies where necessary.


Proactive strategies are preferable over reactive strategies because their purpose is to prevent incidents of challenging behaviour, resulting in the avoidance of the negative repercussions that the behaviour may cause, thereby contributing to the individual’s well-being.


As an example, I work with an individual that has a history of superficial self-harm. When he first moved in, I spoke with him about ways we could prevent this behaviour from happening in the future and we agreed that all sharp implements that could cause him harm should be kept locked away and only accessed when necessary. This included kitchen knives, tools such as screwdrivers and his shaving razor. We also agreed on staff conducting a spot check of his bedroom each day to ensure there were no dangerous items in there. Since he moved in, there has not been an incident of self-harm, so this strategy is working well.


Another example is an individual I worked with that had auditory hallucinations which upset him and caused him to become aggressive towards people and property. Indicators that he was hearing unkind voices were that his head would drop and he would get an angry look on his face. Support staff would then ask him if he was hearing voices and then remind him that they were ‘talking rubbish’ and he could tell them to ‘get lost’. In around 90% of cases, this strategy would avoid episodes of violence.

Explain how a range of factors may be associated with challenging behaviours

There are a range of factors that may contribute to challenging behaviours including:

  • Boredom
  • Lack of boundaries
  • Mental health
  • Lack of understanding
  • Emotional expression
  • Excessive demands
  • Not having enough money to buy something


Challenging behaviours may be caused by one or more of these or something different entirely. It is important to understand the factors that result in challenging behaviour for each individual to establish a strategy for managing and/or preventing it.

Evaluate the impact on an individual’s well-being of using reactive rather than proactive strategies

Reactive strategies are more likely to disrupt the well-being of an individual than proactive strategies because they are used after an instance of challenging behaviour has already begun, so the individual has to deal with the consequences. This can include feelings of regret, guilt or unresolved anger as well as tangible repercussions such as a member of staff no longer wanting to work with them, spending time in a police cell or having to pay for damages to property they have caused. In contrast, proactive strategies aim to prevent a situation developing into one where an individual displays challenging behaviour and avoid the consequences that may follow it.

Explain the importance of reinforcing positive behaviour with individuals

By reinforcing positive behaviour, an individual learns that the behaviour is good and is more inclined to repeat it in future. Many incidents of challenging behaviour are caused by the individual requiring attention from others, but if an individual learns that they can get much more pleasant attention by behaving positively, they are more likely to satisfy their craving for attention in positive ways.

Explain the importance of maintaining a person or child centred approach when establishing proactive strategies

A person-centred approach is important in all aspects of an individual’s support because they have the right to be involved in all decisions that concern them. It is all the more important when establishing proactive strategies for dealing with challenging behaviour because the individual knows more about the reasons why they have they incidents of challenging behaviour than anybody else, so are best-placed to provide information about how to avoid them. In addition, everyone is unique and so are their triggers so proactive strategies should also be tailored uniquely to the individual using a person-centric approach.

Explain the importance of identifying patterns of behaviour or triggers to challenging behaviour when establishing proactive or reactive strategies to be used

It is very important to identify which triggers or patterns come immediately before an individual has challenging behaviour because this information can be utilised to avoid (proactive) or manage (reactive) challenging behaviour in the future. It can also provide important information about the reasons for the change in behaviour. For example, if an individual has an incident of challenging behaviour immediately after two support workers are laughing and joking with each other in another room, it may be that the individual thinks that they are laughing at him behind his back. The proactive solution would be for support workers to not laugh and joke unless the individual is in the same room and involved in the conversation. The reactive solution would be to explain to the individual that they were not laughing at him.

Identify the proactive and reactive strategies that are used within own work role

Within my own work role I use both proactive and reactive strategies. One of my clients suffers from paranoid schizophrenia and would often have episodes of challenging behaviour when it was time to go for his weekly medical injection at the doctors. We worked with him and his GP to arrange for his support to be changed so that a nurse came to his home to administer the injection, which radically reduced his challenging behaviour. This is an example of a proactive strategy. Another example of a proactive strategy is dimming the lights or drawing the curtains for a client that is hypersensitive to light when they are looking upset and talking it over with them. If this clients behaviour escalates, he will stomp around slamming doors and verbally abusing staff. We then use reactive strategies such as ignoring him until he has calmed down. Another reactive strategy we use with a particular client is to do impressions to make him laugh when he is angry. He doesn’t stay angry for long.

Explain the difference between proactive and reactive strategies

Proactive strategies are techniques to prevent challenging behaviour happening, whereas reactive strategies are techniques that are used during an incident of challenging behaviour. Proactive strategies are always preferred as an incident of challenging behaviour can be very stressful for an individual and affect their well-being. Looking at triggers or antecedents that lead to challenging behaviour and trying to avoid or nullify them is an example of a proactive strategy. Distracting an individual whose behaviour is challenging is a reactive strategy.

Describe safeguards that must be in place if restrictive physical interventions are used

If restrictive physical interventions are used or are likely to be used then there must be safeguards in place to protect vulnerable individuals from abuse. Some of these safeguards include proper staff training about when and how to use restrictive interventions as well as detailed policies and procedures to guide their actions. Every incident of restrictive intervention should be recorded and regularly reviewed by a manager. As mentioned above, all staff be using the least restrictive intervention and physical interventions should only be used as a last resort.

Explain why the least restrictive interventions should always be used when dealing with incidents of challenging behaviour

The least restrictive interventions should always be used when dealing with incidents of challenging behaviour. This is because restrictive interventions are invasive to an individual and deprive them of their basic liberties, which is unlawful except in exceptional circumstances.It may also be intimidating and frightening to them especially if they are in a confused state and could escalate the situation further. In addition, it may be necessary to justify any actions taken at a later date. Finally, thinking in terms of the least restrictive intervention creates a good mindset for any challenging behaviour you have to manage in the future.


Explain who needs to be informed of any incidents where restrictive interventions have been used

If a restrictive intervention must be used, it is necessary to contact the service manager. Depending on the situations, the emergency services may need to be contacted (police if a crime has been committed or an ambulance if there are injuries). Social Services and health professionals (e.g. GP, psychologist) may also need to be informed and the family of the individual may also need to be contacted.

Explain when restrictive interventions may and may not be used

Restrictive interventions should ideally not be used at all but the law recognises that on occasion there may be situations where this is necessary. Restrictive interventions should only be used when the individual or somebody else is at risk from harm or to prevent a crime being committed.

Explain how legislation, frameworks, codes of practice and policies relating to positive behaviour support are applied to own working practice

My own working practice involves being familiar with a lot of documentation that enables me to carry out a high standard of care.


Legislation including The Health & Safety at Work Act, The Equality Act, The Human Rights Act and The Mental Capacity Act lay down a foundation for working in a way that is safe, healthy and unprejudiced and recognises that all individuals have the same fundamental rights.


The now-defunct GSCC produced a Code of Practice for social care workers that is still relevant today and is a useful guide for anyone working within the sector. The Department of Health has produced guidance for restrictive physical interventions which I have used to ascertain when it is appropriate to use physical restraint. The government white papers ‘Putting People First’ and ‘Valuing People’ provide a plethora of guidance for working using a person-centred approach.


My company also has its own policies and procedures relating to promoting positive behaviour. I have attached a copy of my company’s Challenging Behaviour Policy & Procedure as evidence.

Describe ways in which discrimination may deliberately or inadvertently occur in the work setting

Discrimination is often considered to be a deliberate unkind act carried out by racists and misogynists, however it can also occur unintentionally.

Deliberate Discrimination

Harassment, bullying, verbal and physical abuse and even jokes aimed at an individual’s differences should not be tolerated.

There is no place for this type of discrimination in society, let alone the workplace – it is morally and ethically wrong and it is illegal.

If it does occur, your employer should take immediate disciplinary action.

Inadvertent Discrimination

Inadvertent or unintentional discrimination can occur if a rule, policy or action prevents an individual or group of individuals from participating.

For example, if an individual that uses a wheelchair cannot access a restaurant because the doorways aren’t wide enough.

Businesses and care workers must do everything they reasonably can to ensure discrimination does not occur.


Explain what is meant by diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination

Equality Word Cloud

Diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination are important terms to understand for the Level 2 Diploma Unit ‘Equality and Diversity in Care Settings’.


Diversity describes the different traits and characteristics of individuals that make them unique. This can include (but is not limited to) things like age, appearance, ability, role, values, beliefs, sexual orientation and gender.

We are all diverse individuals and our differences to one another should be celebrated.


Equality is ensuring that everybody gets the same opportunities, which may mean adjusting things to accommodate individual needs.

For example, a visually impaired individual may need a document in audio or braille format or somebody to read a printed format for them so that they have the same opportunity (to get information) as other individuals that are able to read the text.


Inclusion is ensuring that all individuals are included in a group or activity and are given the opportunity to participate if that is their wish.

Like equality, it is about treating individuals fairly.


Discrimination is excluding individuals, or not treating them equally, because of their differences.

This may be done unintentionally, which is why it is important to have an awareness of these terms. Extreme cases of deliberate discrimination include harassment and hate crimes.

The Equality Act 2010 makes discrimination illegal.

Analyse Factors that Contribute to the Well Being of Individuals

The word 'wellbeing' using brightly-coloured letters

Well-being can be thought of as the state of being happy, comfortable and content.

Here are some of the factors that can contribute to an individual’s well-being.

Physical Health

Having a healthy body can make an individual feel good about themselves. This includes getting regular exercise, having a healthy diet and getting adequate sleep. This also reduces the risk of many illnesses. Exercise, in particular, can release endorphins which are chemicals that give the body a natural high.

Financial Resources

Although money is not everything, having enough money to live comfortably and be able to afford to buy personal items and partake in activities is a real factor to well-being. Without financial security, individuals can feel trapped and stressed.

Emotional Support

We all need emotional support from others at certain times in our lives, whether this be from friends, family or other support networks. Having other people to talk to about feelings and emotions is a great reliever of stress.

Social Networks

Similar to emotional support, we also need other people to talk to and share experiences with. Social networks are groups of people that come together to do something such as football teams, church groups or simply a group of friends that get together regularly for a cup of tea. By being part of a group with similar ideals, individuals can obtain affirmation of their self-worth, which contributes towards their self-esteem.

Work & Education

Another factor that can make an individual feel valued is work and education. By striving towards a learning goal or doing worthwhile vocational work, an individual can feel as though they are able to contribute to society and feel fulfilled.

Choice & Control

All individuals have the right to make their own life choices, even if others disagree with their decisions. Having as much control as possible over our own lives can positively affect our well-being.

Respect & Dignity

Similarly, all individuals should be treated with respect and dignity. This is particularly true for vulnerable individuals who are at increased risk of being taken advantage of and abused. If a person is respected and treated in a dignified, they will feel more self-worth.

Example Question & Answer (Well-being Poster)

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials:

A iii) A poster that explains the factors which can contribute to the wellbeing of individuals



Physical Health (e.g. diet, sleep, exercise etc.)

Collection of healthy foods, vitamins and bathroom scales

Social (e.g. relationships with friends and family, opportunity to meet new people etc.)

Group of silhouettes of 5 stick figures above the word 'Social'

Financial (e.g. having enough money, not overspending etc.)

Wads of banknotes and stacks of coins

Psychological (e.g. feeling safe, having someone to talk to etc.)

Side profile of a man's head filled with psychological words such as risk, fear, flashbacks, trauma etc.

Cultural (e.g. being able to live the life that they choose, having views and opinions respected by others etc.)

A handprint containing several national flags

Religious (e.g. having the freedom to practice their religious beliefs, having religious views respected by others etc.)

Religious symbols; star of david (Jewish), yin/yang (Taoism), cross (Christianity), star and crescent (Islam)

Self-esteem (e.g. feeling of belonging, being able to make a positive contribution to society etc.)

Post-it note with a happy stick figure, heart and the words 'I love myself!'

Political (e.g. living in a fair and democratic society, having political opinions respected etc.)

Politician standing at a podium with 'Vote' banners in the background

1.5 Describe the actions to take if an individual cannot give informed consent to the treatment

A file with 'informed consent' written on it and a stethoscope resting on top

If an individual is unable to give their consent to treatment, tests or examination (perhaps due to not having the capacity to understand the implications) then the healthcare professional should investigate if the individual has a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) or Legally Appointed Deputy (LPD) for their health and welfare. These individuals are able to make healthcare decisions on behalf of the individual and consent can be obtained from them.

Nobody else, including family members and carers, can legally consent for another individual and should never be asked to.

If an individual does not have an LPA or LPD, a best interests meeting must be arranged by the healthcare professional to discuss the best interests of the individual. This meeting must invite everybody that has a stake in the individual’s health so as well as healthcare professionals, the individual’s family/friends should also be consulted.

If, at the conclusion of the meeting, it is decided that it is in the best interest of the individual to commence with the treatment, then the healthcare professional is permitted to go ahead with it.

1.4 Explain why it is important to ensure an individual is able to give informed consent to their treatment in line with legislation, policies or guidance

A file with 'informed consent' written on it and a stethoscope resting on top

It is essential that an individual is able to give their informed consent to treatment, test or examination prior to it commencing.

This is an important part of medical ethics and human rights legislation (see the Human Rights Act 1998).

For individuals with learning disabilities, there may not be immediate certainty that they are able to give consent as they may not have the capacity to make such a decision. Having capacity means that an individual is able to understand the information given to them and then use this information to make an informed decision.

The other two pillars of consent are being informed (the individual is given all the information they need to make the decision) and the choice being voluntary (the individual makes the choice of their own free will and without pressure from others).

Having said that, individuals with learning disabilities should always be considered as having capacity unless there is reason think otherwise. It should not be presumed that just because someone has a learning disability, they lack capacity.

1.3 Describe ways that healthcare services should make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to ensure that they provide equal access to individuals with a learning disability

A boy in a wheelchair with a nurse

There are many ways that healthcare services can make reasonable adjustments to make equal accessibility available to individuals with learning disabilities.

For example, organisations can ensure that their signposts are clear and easy to follow. Similarly, handouts such as leaflets and information sheets may need to be adjusted so that people with learning disabilities are able to understand them. This could be by using visual aids, using ‘plain english’/’easy read’ or providing alternative media formats such as CDs and DVDs.

Sites of healthcare services should ensure that they are accessible for people with physical disabilities. Simple changes like widening doorways so that a wheelchair can fit through or using automatic doors so that people do not need strength and stability to push/pull a door open can make a real difference.

Some individuals may need extra time to have information explained to them or may require home visits.

Carers of people with learning disabilities should be embraced as they will know how best to communicate with the individual, however conversation and questions should be directed at the individual themselves as they are the ones receiving the healthcare.

Medical records should keep a log of the individuals preferences so that the healthcare professional has the information they require to meet the individual’s personal needs during appointments.

1.2 Identify legislation which supports a rights-based approach to accessing healthcare

Legislation word cloud

The most obvious piece of legislation that supports a rights-based approach to accessing healthcare is the Human Rights Act 1998.

This defines the fundamental rights and freedoms that all individuals are entitled to, whether they have a disability or not. Each right is an article and they are collectively known as the Convention Rights.

  • Article 2: Right to life
  • Article 3: Freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment
  • Article 4: Freedom from slavery and forced labour
  • Article 5: Right to liberty and security
  • Article 6: Right to fair trial
  • Article 7: No punishment without law
  • Article 8: Respect for your private and family life, home and correspondence
  • Article 9: Freedom of thought, belief and religion
  • Article 10: Freedom of expression
  • Article 11: Freedom of assembly and association
  • Article 12: Right to marry and start a family
  • Article 14: Protection from discrimination in respect of these rights and freedoms
  • Protocol 1, Article 1: Right to peaceful enjoyment of your property
  • Protocol 1, Article 2: Right to education
  • Protocol 1, Article 3: Right to participate in free elections
  • Protocol 13, Article 1: Abolition of the death penalty

NOTE: Articles 1 and 13 are excluded as they are fulfilled with the creation of the Human Rights Act.

The Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for individuals to be discriminated based on certain ‘protected’ characteristics of which one is disability. This means that healthcare providers must reasonably make healthcare accessible to people with learning disabilities.


1.1 Outline what is meant by a rights-based approach to accessing healthcare

Human Rights-Based Approach

A rights-based approach to accessing healthcare in relation to individuals with learning disabilities brings that person’s basic human rights to the forefront of the healthcare they receive.

Individuals with learning disabilities are first and foremost individuals and have the same needs and rights regarding healthcare as those without learning disabilities.

Therefore they should be implicit in their own healthcare and empowered to make their own decisions whilst being provided with information through media that they can digest and fully understand.

Healthcare providers should have well-trained staff that involve individuals with learning disabilities. When talking about an individual’s health they should speak to the individual rather than their family or support worker. They should presume that the individual has the capacity to make their own choices and discussions of sexual health should not be stigmatized.

In addition, individuals with learning disabilities should not be discriminated against and should be offered equal opportunities to access healthcare.

1.1 Define Person Centred Values

A brightly coloured individual on a pedestal surrounded by a ring of other individuals representing a definition of person centred values

The Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) defines person-centred values as:

Promoting person-centred values means carrying out your role in a way that respects the people you work with so that they can live the life that they choose to.

Essentially, person-centred values are values that have the individual at the core. In an adult health and social care setting, the individual would be the adult that is being supported.

The individual should be considered an expert adviser in the management of their support plan – no-one knows or understands their particular needs, desires, likes, preferences, wishes etc. more than they do themselves!

Sometimes, particularly in the past, care packages have been put together out of convenience by the provider and without the collaboration of the individuals who receive the support. However, this can lead to care packages that are not suitable for the individual – even the most well-meaning care worker can get it wrong if they do not consult with individual.

Old-fashioned views and opinions consider that individuals with learning disabilities, mental health conditions, dementia and other illnesses that affect cognition are unable to make sound choices for themselves and that others are needed to make decisions on their behalf be it family, social workers, care workers etc. Whilst there are still cases where others must act in the best interest of individuals (for example, if an individual is detained under the mental health act), on the whole most individuals are fully capable of making their own choices. And it is against the law for care workers to take away this right (see the Human Rights Act for further information).

Person-centred values are also about treating individuals with dignity and respect. Part of this, as stated above, is not restricting individuals from making their own choices (even if you do not agree with them yourself) but also encompasses communication, seeking consent, privacy and independence.

By working with person-centred values at the forefront of your practice, you can give the individuals you work with a better quality of life and help them to establish their own identity and raise their self-esteem.

1.3 Explain Why It Is Important To Observe An Individual’s Reactions When Communicating With Them

Jackie Chan with hands on head and a confused look on face representing the importance of observing responses when communicating

It is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them as there may be visual cues about their understanding and feelings that they are unable or unwilling to verbalise. Being mindful of these reactions can help you to communicate effectively, demonstrate that you are are listening, keep the conversation flowing and prevent misunderstandings.

For example, if the individual is nodding whilst you are speaking, and clarifying what you say, it probably means that they are listening and attentive and you should continue. If the individual looks confused, it may indicate that they do not understand and you may need to rephrase what you are saying in different words. If they are avoiding eye contact and looking in the opposite direction it may mean that they don’t like what you are saying or aren’t interested, so you may need to try a different approach or try again later.

Some reactions may be related to the environment or the situation and have no bearing on what you are communicating at all. Therefore, it is important to do your best to make an individual as comfortable as possible before the conversation starts to ensure they are receptive as possible to what you are saying.

Environmental factors can include:

  • Temperature
  • Lighting
  • Seating

And situational factors can include:

  • Unexpected meeting
  • Conversing immediately after a behaviour
  • Tiredness

You may be able to identify the reasons for an individual’s discomfort by observing them during conversation. For example if they are shivering it could indicate that they are cold and you can offer them a blanket or turn the heating up. Or if they seem tired and unresponsive it may tell you that they should get some rest and the conversation should be rescheduled.

In summary, without observing the person you are communicating with, it will be very difficult to identify and remove barriers to the communication and tell whether they have understood you correctly.

1.2 Explain How Effective Communication Affects All Aspects of Own Work

The words 'effective communication' between two silhouettes communicating via a tin can and string

Communication is very important in a health and social care setting and effective communication can have a positive affect on all aspects of your own work.

By communicating effectively with colleagues, managers and other professionals, you will be ensuring that the messages, instructions, questions and ideas that you are sending are received and understood correctly by the other party. Similarly, you will also ensure that you correctly understand what is being communicated to you by others.

Perhaps more than in any other industry, health and social care requires teams and professional partners to work as a single cohesive unit to provide the clients with a uniform care structure. Effective communication assures that everyone is on the same page and minimises mistakes.

In addition, health and social care requires a lot of record-keeping which must be accurate and legible (by law) so good reading and writing skills are a must. If things go wrong, sometimes the only way to back up your actions is by the documentation that you have written.

Effective communication is also critical the clients that you support.

If you are unable to understand one another then you will not be able to provide them with adequate support as you will be unable to understand their needs, preferences or wishes. There may also be other reasons why someone needs to communicate with you.

Some clients may not be verbal and so you will need to learn to communicate them using other means such as facial expressions, makaton or gestures. You may even need to become familiar with their language if they do not speak english.

One of the great things about being a care worker is that it opens up opportunities to improve all aspects of your communication and become a better speaker, listener, reader and writer. And these skills can be transferred to your personal life as well.

1.1 Identify Different Reasons People Communicate

Two individuals forming an idea by communicating - an example of why people communicate

The Short Answer

There are many different reasons why people communicate. These include:

  • Pleasure
  • To socialise
  • To make and maintain relationships
  • To ask questions
  • To request information
  • To offer choices
  • To advise/guide
  • To give support/reassurance
  • To express a need, desire or preference
  • To express a feeling
  • To share ideas
  • To share experiences
  • To discuss and debate
  • To show compassion/empathy
  • To give instructions
  • To encourage/motivate/persuade

The Long Answer

Communication is everyone’s panacea for everything ~ Tom Peters

Whether you agree with the quote above or not, it is undeniable that communication has a wide variety of functions and as part of your Level 2 Diploma, your tutor will expect you to be able to list and explain at least a handful of them. Most courses will ask you to write down just three or four reasons that individuals communicate, but do bear in mind that sometimes you may be asked for more.

The good news is I’ve compiled a handy list for you 🙂


Social interaction very much depends upon communication. Without it, it is very difficult to make and maintain relationships with partners, friends, family and even colleagues.

It is useful to remember that social communication is not just chatting to people that you know. Hugs, pats on the back and kissing (if appropriate) are all forms of communication. As are writing letters, emails etc.

And on top of this, for many people communicating socially is generally a very pleasurable experience, which helps relieve stress and anxiety.


Communication can be used to express or vocalise things such as feelings, needs, desires, preferences or wishes.

Again, this does not have to verbal. For example, a piece of music can communicate the writer’s (or player’s) sadness or happiness. Or the makaton sign for ‘tea; can express the signer’s desire for a cuppa!

Information sharing

Information is shared between people using communication. This may be sharing ideas, advice or experiences or to ask questions or request specific information. Or giving someone instructions for performing a task.

If I were to ask you the time and you were to tell me it is midnight, that is an example of using communication to share information. Another example would be a team meeting where you brainstorm ideas to come up with a solution to a problem.


Reassuring and supporting others is another way to utilise communication. As well as offering understanding and an arm around the shoulder, you can also demonstrate compassion and empathy.

You should now be able to identify different reasons people communicate for your level 2 diploma.

Example Answer: Identify Four Different Reasons Why People Communicate

People communicate for many different reasons. Socially, people communicate for pleasure, to ask questions or to offer choices. Communication can also be used to express a need or a feeling to others as well as share ideas and debate issues. In addition, communication can be used to show compassion and empathy towards others.


Demonstrate How and When to Access Support About Resolving Conflicts

An individual helping with conflict resolution by standing between two angry individuals

As a health and care worker, you may often be required to help with conflict resolution, so it is important that you are able to identify skills and approaches need for resolving conflicts and be able to find and utilise additional help and support if required.

When getting involved in a conflict, it is important to understand that all parties may initially be in a high emotional state, which makes them less likely to approach the issues in a logical fashion. You should give everyone a chance to explain how they are feeling from their perspective. This means listening intently to what they have to say, giving them respect and showing empathy and understanding. Everyone should be treated fairly and equitably as if an individual feels as though they are being ‘ganged up on’ they will be far less open to compromise later.

When everybody has had the opportunity to say their piece (and hopefully cooled down a little) it is time to negotiate and find out what (if any) compromises people are willing to make. It may be necessary to make it clear to all that there may be no hope of resolution if everybody is not willing to compromise a little and then nobody will get what they want.

Having drafted a potential resolution, it is essential to ensure that there is clarity and transparency and that everybody is happy. Active listening is important to make sure that everybody understands what will happen moving forward so that there are no misunderstandings that could lead to more issues in the future. Documenting the resolution and getting each party to sign it is recommended.

If nobody is willing to compromise or no resolution can be found, then you may need to obtain additional support.

Contacting a senior member of staff or your line manager for guidance will probably be your first port of call. Third-party professionals can also be useful, such as trained mediators. If all or some of the facts about the issue are unknown, it may be necessary to contact other professionals for advice. This could be a social worker or community nurse, for example.

If there is a degree of aggression in the conflict, it may be necessary to contact the police for assistance.

Demonstrate How and When to Access Support About Partnership Working

If you feel that your knowledge is limited with regards partnership working or you are finding working with a particular partner difficult, you should seek advice from your manager or a senior member of staff. Colleagues with relevant experience can also be an invaluable source of information. You can also seek advice from other individuals and agencies.

Identify Skills and Approaches Needed for Resolving Conflicts

It is extremely important to remain calm during conflict resolution and listen intently to the feelings and views of everyone involved so that you can empathise with them and work towards a compromise that suits everybody.

Demonstrate Ways of Working That Can Help Improve Partnership Working

Having good communication skills is essential for improving partnership working. Also, building strong relationships with others and giving accurate and timely information can help to build trust, which is also important to working effectively with partners. Knowing you own strengths and weaknesses as well as those of others and seeking training where needed can also be useful.