Analyse Factors that Contribute to the Well Being of Individuals

The word 'wellbeing' using brightly-coloured letters

Well-being can be thought of as the state of being happy, comfortable and content.

Here are some of the factors that can contribute to an individual’s well-being.

Physical Health

Having a healthy body can make an individual feel good about themselves. This includes getting regular exercise, having a healthy diet and getting adequate sleep. This also reduces the risk of many illnesses. Exercise, in particular, can release endorphins which are chemicals that give the body a natural high.

Financial Resources

Although money is not everything, having enough money to live comfortably and be able to afford to buy personal items and partake in activities is a real factor to well-being. Without financial security, individuals can feel trapped and stressed.

Emotional Support

We all need emotional support from others at certain times in our lives, whether this be from friends, family or other support networks. Having other people to talk to about feelings and emotions is a great reliever of stress.

Social Networks

Similar to emotional support, we also need other people to talk to and share experiences with. Social networks are groups of people that come together to do something such as football teams, church groups or simply a group of friends that get together regularly for a cup of tea. By being part of a group with similar ideals, individuals can obtain affirmation of their self-worth, which contributes towards their self-esteem.

Work & Education

Another factor that can make an individual feel valued is work and education. By striving towards a learning goal or doing worthwhile vocational work, an individual can feel as though they are able to contribute to society and feel fulfilled.

Choice & Control

All individuals have the right to make their own life choices, even if others disagree with their decisions. Having as much control as possible over our own lives can positively affect our well-being.

Respect & Dignity

Similarly, all individuals should be treated with respect and dignity. This is particularly true for vulnerable individuals who are at increased risk of being taken advantage of and abused. If a person is respected and treated in a dignified, they will feel more self-worth.

Example Question & Answer (Well-being Poster)

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials:

A iii) A poster that explains the factors which can contribute to the wellbeing of individuals

 

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO AN INDIVIDUAL’S WELL-BEING

Physical Health (e.g. diet, sleep, exercise etc.)

Collection of healthy foods, vitamins and bathroom scales

Social (e.g. relationships with friends and family, opportunity to meet new people etc.)

Group of silhouettes of 5 stick figures above the word 'Social'

Financial (e.g. having enough money, not overspending etc.)

Wads of banknotes and stacks of coins

Psychological (e.g. feeling safe, having someone to talk to etc.)

Side profile of a man's head filled with psychological words such as risk, fear, flashbacks, trauma etc.

Cultural (e.g. being able to live the life that they choose, having views and opinions respected by others etc.)

A handprint containing several national flags

Religious (e.g. having the freedom to practice their religious beliefs, having religious views respected by others etc.)

Religious symbols; star of david (Jewish), yin/yang (Taoism), cross (Christianity), star and crescent (Islam)

Self-esteem (e.g. feeling of belonging, being able to make a positive contribution to society etc.)

Post-it note with a happy stick figure, heart and the words 'I love myself!'

Political (e.g. living in a fair and democratic society, having political opinions respected etc.)

Politician standing at a podium with 'Vote' banners in the background

Give three reasons why risk assessments designed to support choice and active participation need to be reviewed and updated regularly.

Risk assessments designed to support choice and active participation should be updated regularly. This is because the needs or preferences of the individual may change (e.g. they may no longer want to partake in an activity). New risks may be identified which would also require the risk assessment to be updated. Changes in legislation may also prompt a review of existing risk assessments.

Describe two different uses of risk assessment in adult social care settings.

Risk assessments can be used in an adult social setting to identify and reduce any risks in a particular activity that an individual wants to partake in. For example, if an individual wants to go cycling, there is a risk that they could fall off their bike and get a head injury. This risk can be reduced by ensuring that the individual wears a cycle helmet.

Risk assessments can also be used reduce risk to support staff, such as if the individual they are supporting becomes aggressive. The risk assessment can contain actions that the support staff can perform to try and get the individual back to a baseline level, or if this is not possible, what they should do to keep themselves safe (e.g. leave the building, call the police etc.)

You can also use a risk assessment to ensure the environment remains safe and secure such as checking smoke alarms regularly or locking doors.

Explain how the responsibilities of all concerned with the care of an individual can be supported by a risk assessment.

Risk assessments can be used to support the responsibilities of everyone involved in the care of an individual. The individual has the right to make their own life choices and these must be respected by their support worker, however their support worker has a duty of care to ensure the safety and wellbeing of the individual. By working with an individual to create a risk assessment, there is a documented record that the individual has been offered choice and informed about the potential risks involved. Simply by going through the process, it may give an individual a greater understanding of the risks and may change their mind. The risk assessment also aims to reduce potential risk, ensuring that the activity is performed as safely as possible. This allows the support worker to safeguard the individual as much as can reasonably be expected.

Give two ways that a risk assessment can support the right of an individual using the service to take risks and make choices.

Risk assessments are used to reduce any risks to safety or wellbeing by ensuring that things are done in the safest way possible. They are not used to prevent an individual doing something that they want to do but to ensure that they are able to do it in a safe and appropriate manner. This promotes the rights of the individual to make their own choices and increases their independence. Also, by going through the risk assessment process with the individual and identifying the risks involved, they may be better able to understand those risks and have all the information they need to make an informed decision.

Explain how to ensure everyone involved in an activity or event such as a review understands how to apply the principles of active participation.

It is important that everybody involved in an activity understands and can apply the principles of active participation. This means acknowledging that the individual is present by speaking to and directly addressing them. Everybody should also be aware of the individual’s communication need, for example they may need speak in short sentences of 2-3 keywords and avoid using long words. Everybody should be given the time to speak and express their opinions and where conflicts arise, everybody should work in partnership to discuss the issue and find a suitable compromise. Individual’s should be encouraged to listen, ask questions and challenge things that they do not agree with.

Explain how active participation can support all aspects of an individual’s preferences and needs.

Active participation can be used to support all aspects of an individual’s preferences and needs because the individual will have a big say in how their care and support is provided. When an individual is encouraged to take an active role in planning their support they are better able to live the life that they choose in the way that they want. This can result in more opportunities to get involved with activities and social interactions which can lead to better health and wellbeing, more self-confidence and more independence.

Explain what is meant by the term “active participation”

Active participation is a way of working that recognises an individual as an active partner in their care and support by acknowledging that they have the right to participate in activities and relationships of everyday life however they wish and as independently as possible. It promotes the rights, independence  and choice of the individual.

Social Care Mentoring: Choices

You are later asked to speak to another social worker who has had difficulties helping an individual using the service to make choices and to challenge decisions they don’t agree with. There is a suspicion that the social care worker has also been trying to impose their own views on the individual.

In the role play or written account, you must:

Civ Describe a range of approaches to help individuals make informed choices.

Cv Describe different ways to help an individual challenge decisions made by others (such as medical practitioners, social care workers and family members)

Cvi Explain the possible consequences if the personal views of others (such as medical practitioners, social care workers and family members) are allowed to influence the choices an individual makes.

This written account will describe a range of approaches for helping individuals make informed choices, help them to challenge decisions made by others and explain the consequences that the personal views of professionals may influence an individual’s decisions.

There are a range of approaches that can be used to ensure that an individual is able to make informed choices. First and foremost, you should ensure that they are given all the relevant information in an unbiased manner. It is also useful to communicate this information in a manner that will aid their understanding, such as by using pictorial aids. Discussing the options with the individual gives them the opportunity to ask any questions they may have and guidance from friends and family can also help. For some individuals, an advocate can be used to speak on their behalf.

Individuals have the right to challenge decisions made by others, whether it be a family member or professional (such as their GP or support worker). Individuals should be encouraged to ask questions and make comments about decisions. They should know that they can ask for a second opinion from an alternative professional or speak to a senior member of staff or a manager. If they are not happy with something, they should be advised that they can use the complaints procedure.

If a professional allows their own personal views to influence an individual’s choices, it reduces the amount of choice the individual has and could lead to their needs not being met. It could cause more stress for the individual, lower self-esteem and less motivation because they may feel that they are not in control of their own lives.

Social Care Mentoring: Consent

You are a senior social care worker and have been asked to mentor a colleague who is finding it difficult to understand the importance of obtaining consent from individuals receiving a service.

In the role play or written account, you must:

Ci Describe the different factors that might affect an individual’s ability to express their view.

Cii Explain different ways of gaining consent to activities or actions.

Ciii Explain what to do if the social care worker cannot gain consent or is unsure of the response.

This written account will explain the importance of gaining consent from an individual, how consent can be gained and what to do if consent is not given.

Gaining consent before giving care is extremely important in an adult social care setting, not only because it is a legal requirement but also because it demonstrates respect for the individual, develops trust and because it is easier to provide care to someone that is willing to accept it.

 

An individual’s ability to express their view could be compromised by several factors. Firstly, they may not have the mental capacity to make an informed choice or may be unable to communicate verbally. They may have physical disabilities that make communication difficult. There may be language barriers, for example with an individual that doesn’t speak English or the individual may not have been given enough information to make an informed choice.

Consent can be given in many different ways. Primarily, verbal consent will be used after the caregiver has explained what they are going to do and requested permission to do it, however an individual may consent with gestures, such as nodding or using sign language. Written consent can also be obtained, or for individuals that do not have the mental capacity to give consent themselves, an advocate can give consent on their behalf.

Care should not be given if consent is not obtained, or even if you unsure if the individual has given consent. You should seek guidance from senior staff or from the individual’s family or advocate and document that consent was not given.

Explain how useful care or support plans can be in supporting person centred values in practice.

Care and support plans are extremely useful for supporting person-centred values because it contains a plethora of information about an individual’s needs and preferences. It explains in detail exactly how the individual wants to receive their support so that is in line with their wishes.

It is a working document so can any changes to an individual’s situation or their preferences can be documented and their support altered accordingly.

As it is written in collaboration with the individual, it documents their own choices as well as advice from health and social care professionals that work in partnership to produce a plan that is bespoke to the individual.

Explain why it is important to review care or support plans with an individual, and to monitor their changing needs or preferences.

Care and Support plans are working documents and should be updated regularly to fit in with the changing needs of the individual.

Each individual has constantly changing needs and wishes so their care plan should be flexible. For example, an individual may decide that they want to go out clubbing until the early hours every Saturday, which could result in changes to their support workers shift patterns – perhaps they need more hours so that staff can accompany them to clubs or less hours because they go to the clubs with friends and support is not required for that time period.

All individuals have the right to live their life as they choose and their decisions must be respected by the support staff.

In my setting, support plans can be changed by any member of staff as and when the needs of the individual changes. They do this by writing in the support plan. In addition, every three months, the support plan is reviewed by senior staff members and any changes that have been made over the quarter are typed up as well as any new information added. This is done in collaboration with the individual and, where necessary, their family and other health and social care professionals.

Only by keeping the support plan updated and by regularly reviewing it can an individual get the correct support they need for their current needs and preferences.

Explain how finding out about an individual’s history, preferences, wishes and needs are an important part of creating a good care or support plan.

To create a good Care & Support Plan, it is essential to gain as much information as possible about the individual. This can be gathered from their friends, family, other relations and health professionals, such as their doctor, psychologist and social worker. However, the most important person to converse with is the individual themselves as they are the experts in their needs, wishes and preferences.

All individuals have the basic rights of choice, dignity and respect so understanding the person means that you can develop a support plan that is tailor-made to their requirements.

If you do not take the time to really get to know the individual and have them actively contribute to their own care plan, it is unlikely that the support you provide will be useful to them. Individuals will be much more likely to accept and adhere to a care plan that they have had an active role in creating.

By knowing about an individual’s history, you may be able to identify the causes or triggers of previous incidents and add safeguards/interventions to the care plan to prevent the issues re-occurring.

Write a reflective account detailing an example of how you have, or could have, used a person centred approach in a sensitive or complex situation.

Write a reflective account detailing an example of how you have, or could have, used a person centred approach in a sensitive or complex situation.

The account must contain a description of how person centred values were or could be put into practice in the situation.

I was supporting a young adult with a learning disability in his home. His girlfriend was visiting and they were watching a movie in his lounge and had been asked to be left alone together, so I respected their wishes and went to bring the laundry in from outside. The client’s lounge is joined to the conservatory via a pair of french doors and many windows and when I came back inside, I saw that he and his girlfriend were both topless and kissing in his lounge.

This was a sensitive situation because although I respected my client and his girlfriend had the right to intimacy, there was a problem with privacy because the conservatory was a thoroughfare for both staff and my client’s housemate as well as his housemate’s friends. The windows also meant that they could potentially be viewed by neighbours. This could lead to future embarrassment, complaints by neighbours or even a complaint to the police, which would all heighten the anxiety of both individuals. It was also the first time that they had displayed sexual intimacy towards each other so it came as a surprise.

I went around to the other door (that didn’t have windows), knocked and apologised for disturbing them but explained that I needed to come in and talk to them before they went any further and to put their tops back on. When they were dressed I entered the room and explained my concerns. My client was upset at first because he thought he’d done something wrong but I told him that it was not my place to stop consenting adults from being intimate (and then I checked that they were both consensual) but it was my job to ensure that they were protected from the potential implications of them having sex where others could see them. I then suggested that they go up to his bedroom and reminded them that he had condoms in his bedside drawer and that he should use one. They went upstairs to continue in private.

In this situation, I took into account my client’s right to privacy, despite me having to disturb him to ensure he had privacy from others. I respected my client and his girlfriend’s right to choose to have sexual intercourse (knowing that they both had capacity to make the decision) and tried to behave with dignity and respect in a sensitive situation.

Guide for Social Care Workers to Promote Well-Being, Identity, Self-Image & Self-Esteem

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials

[Av] A guide for social care workers which:
a)    Describes ways they can ensure the environment promotes well-being;
b)    Explains why it is important to support individuals in a way that promotes their identity, self-image and self-esteem.

A Guide for Social Care Workers

Introduction

This guide was created to be read by social care workers and will help you to ensure that well-being is promoted in your environment and that the way you support individuals promotes their identity, self-image and self-esteem.

Ensure an Environment Promotes Well-Being

Some factors which can affect an individual’s well-being are their physical health, positive social interactions, having their cultural, spiritual, religious and political views respected and being able to contribute to their care and support package.

 

You can ensure that the environment you work in promotes well-being by ensuring it is kept clean and free from hazards. Individuals can be encouraged to eat healthily and get regular sleep and exercise as well as have the opportunities to partake in activities that they enjoy and socialise with friends and family in accordance with their preferences.

An individual should feel safe and comfortable in their environment. This could mean dimming the lights, adjusting the temperature or minimising noise levels depending on their needs.

Individuals should be given the opportunity to contribute to their care and support and their wishes and preferences should be respected and included in their care & support plan. Similarly, an individual’s cultural, religious, spiritual and political views should be respected.

Why You Should Promote Identity, Self-Image & Self-Esteem

An individual’s identity is all the traits that make them unique and the roles that they play in society. This includes their intellect, likes/dislikes, goals, achievements, skills, talents, beliefs, emotions and behaviours. An individual’s self-image is how they see themselves and how they believe that others see them. Their self-esteem is the evaluation they make about their identity and self-image, which can either be negative (low self-esteem) or positive (high self-esteem).

It is important to to try to promote the positive aspects of an individual’s identity and encourage them to have a positive self-image because this will, in turn, help them to develop a high self-esteem.

This means being complimentary about the positive aspects of their identity, but being careful to remain truthful and not sound patronising. Building a  rapport with an individual by asking questions about themselves is a good way to get them to think about themselves. When they talk about something good in their lives, you can reinforce this in positive ways, by giving praise for example.

With continued positive reinforcement of an individual’s identity over the long term, their self-image will improve and their self-esteem become higher. This will result in the individual having more confidence and a generally happier outlook in life.

 

Links Between Identity, Self-Image & Self-Esteem

Silhouettes of individuals with question marks on their chests and the words 'What's My Identity?'

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials:

[Aiv] A hand out that explains the link between identity, self-image and self-esteem

IDENTITY SELF-IMAGE & SELF-ESTEEM

Positive identity, self-image and self-esteem are necessary factors for an individual to have a good sense of well-being. In this handout, you will learn what each of these phrases mean and the links between them.

IDENTITY

All individuals have two types of identity; their social identity and their personal identity.

Social Identity identifies the roles that we play in our life or the cultural groups that we belong to. Examples of social identity include father, teacher, English or Muslim.

Personal Identity is the things that are personal to us such as our goals, achievements, likes/dislikes, emotions, style, body image and behaviours.

SELF-IMAGE

Self-image is how we see ourselves and how we believe that others perceive us.

Our self-image may not reflect reality – an individual with anorexia may see themselves as being overweight, when in reality they are underweight.

SELF-ESTEEM

Self-esteem is an evaluation of yourself based on your identity and self-image, which ultimately results in how you feel about yourself.

Self-esteem can be either positive or negative, resulting in high or low self-esteem respectively.

Examples of positive evaluations include:

  • I am handsome
  • I am smart
  • I am good at swimming

Examples of negative evaluations include:

  • I am ugly
  • I am stupid
  • I am rubbish at swimming

THE LINKS

So, in summary, an individual’s identity is composed of all the characteristics that make that person unique.

An individual’s self-image is their perception of themselves based upon their identity.

An individual’s self-esteem is how they feel about themselves and how confident they are with themselves.

If an individual’s identity is repressed, this can directly affect their self-image and lower their self esteem.

For example, if an individual likes punk music but is told that they cannot dye their hair green, they may feel as though they are unable to express themselves and cannot have the self-image that they want. This can then have the knock-on effect that their self-esteem is lowered because they feel that they cannot be themselves.

Poster Explaining Factors That Can Contribute to the Well-Being of Individuals

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials:

Aiii       A poster that explains the factors which can contribute to the wellbeing of individuals

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO AN INDIVIDUAL’S WELL-BEING

Physical Health (e.g. diet, sleep, exercise etc.)

Health

Social (e.g. relationships with friends and family, opportunity to meet new people etc.)

Social

Financial (e.g. having enough money, not overspending etc.)

Financial

Psychological (e.g. feeling safe, having someone to talk to etc.)

Psychological

Cultural (e.g. being able to live the life that they choose, having views and opinions respected by others etc.)

Cultural

Religious (e.g. having the freedom to practice their religious beliefs, having religious views respected by others etc.)

Religious

Self-esteem (e.g. feeling of belonging, being able to make a positive contribution to society etc.)

Self-esteem

Political (e.g. living in a fair and democratic society, having political opinions respected etc.)

Political

 

Handout Explaining the Importance of Person-Centred Values

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials:

[Aii] A hand out which explains why person centred values are important and how they influence social care work

PERSON CENTRED VALUES IN SOCIAL CARE

Why Are Person-Centred Values Important?

Person-centred values are of the utmost importance in social care because they put the individual at the heart of their support.

It is based on the premise that an individual is the expert in what support they require and should work closely with health professionals and others including their family, relations and friends to devise the support plan that is best for them.

Person-centred values include:

  • Individuality – Everyone is an individual with their own needs, goals, beliefs and values.
  • Choice – Everyone should be free to make their own choices in life and be given the information they need to make decisions in a way that they can understand.
  • Independence – Everyone should be empowered to do as much as possible for themselves.
  • Rights – Everyone has human rights that should be respected and upheld.
  • Privacy – Everyone has the right to their own private space and time and their private information should only be shared on a ‘need-to-know’ basis.
  • Dignity – Everyone deserves to be treated in a dignified manner and time should be taken to ensure they are treated with dignity.
  • Respect – Everyone should have their thought, opinions and beliefs respected even if others do not agree with them.
  • Partnership – Everyone involved in an individual’s care should work together to achieve the best possible outcomes. This includes the individual, their families and health professionals.

How Do Person-Centred Values Influence Social Care Work?

With regards social care work, person centred values should be used to ensure that the care and support an individual receives is unique to them and that they are that the centre of the decision-making process.

Individuals should not be required to fit in with a ‘one size fits all’ system. They should not have to change the way they live to get support, the service provider should change their way of working to fit in with the individual.

The personal beliefs and opinions of the individual should be respected, even if employees of the service provider disagree with them.

Similarly, any decisions that an individual makes should be respected and they should be given the support to follow through with their decisions even if employees of the service provider deem them to be unwise or they go against their own personal beliefs.

Service providers must get to know the individuals that they are supporting in order to understand and provide the support that they need. As well as communicating with the individual, the service provider can get information from the individual’s family and friends as well as other health and social care professionals.

Poster Describing Person-Centred Approaches

Your work is running a campaign to improve staff understanding of all aspects of person centred care.

You have been asked to create the following materials:

[Ai] A poster which describes a range of person centred approaches to care

 

 

ARE YOU WORKING IN A PERSON-CENTRED WAY?

Do you communicate in the way your clients want to communicate?

Communication

Do your clients choose the activities that they participate in?

Activities

Do you promote freedom of choice for your clients?

Choice

Do you involve your clients in decisions about the support you provide?

Support

Do you see your clients as individuals?

Individual

Do you encourage your clients to pursue their own goals, even if you do not agree with them?

Goals

If you can answer ‘YES’ to all these questions, Well Done! You are working in a person-centred way.

If not, please take a leaflet to learn more about person-centred approaches.