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Describe ways in which discrimination may deliberately or inadvertently occur in the work setting

Discrimination is often considered to be a deliberate unkind act carried out by racists and misogynists, however it can also occur unintentionally.

Deliberate Discrimination

Harassment, bullying, verbal and physical abuse and even jokes aimed at an individual’s differences should not be tolerated.

There is no place for this type of discrimination in society, let alone the workplace – it is morally and ethically wrong and it is illegal.

If it does occur, your employer should take immediate disciplinary action.

Inadvertent Discrimination

Inadvertent or unintentional discrimination can occur if a rule, policy or action prevents an individual or group of individuals from participating.

For example, if an individual that uses a wheelchair cannot access a restaurant because the doorways aren’t wide enough.

Businesses and care workers must do everything they reasonably can to ensure discrimination does not occur.


Explain what is meant by diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination

Equality Word Cloud

Diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination are important terms to understand for the Level 2 Diploma Unit ‘Equality and Diversity in Care Settings’.


Diversity describes the different traits and characteristics of individuals that make them unique. This can include (but is not limited to) things like age, appearance, ability, role, values, beliefs, sexual orientation and gender.

We are all diverse individuals and our differences to one another should be celebrated.


Equality is ensuring that everybody gets the same opportunities, which may mean adjusting things to accommodate individual needs.

For example, a visually impaired individual may need a document in audio or braille format or somebody to read a printed format for them so that they have the same opportunity (to get information) as other individuals that are able to read the text.


Inclusion is ensuring that all individuals are included in a group or activity and are given the opportunity to participate if that is their wish.

Like equality, it is about treating individuals fairly.


Discrimination is excluding individuals, or not treating them equally, because of their differences.

This may be done unintentionally, which is why it is important to have an awareness of these terms. Extreme cases of deliberate discrimination include harassment and hate crimes.

The Equality Act 2010 makes discrimination illegal.

Using the table below, identify three ways of challenging discrimination, and describe how each will promote change.


Way to challenge discrimination How this will promote change
Speaking up if somebody is being discriminatory.It lets the person know that their behaviour is unacceptable and may allow the opportunity to educate them about why discrimination is wrong.
Having a company equality and diversity policy that all employees are required to read.It lets people know what is and is not acceptable and why, along with the potential consequences of non-compliance.
Reporting discrimination to your manager or making a complaint to employer of the person discriminating.The company must take your report/complaint seriously and investigate it thoroughly according to company policies and the law.

For each of the following people/groups of people, describe two different possible effects of discrimination

IndividualThey become angry and upset that they are being treated differently to others.

They lose self-esteem as they are made to feel that they are worth less than others.

 Their families They feel guilty that they have entrusted the care of their relation with someone that is discriminatory.

They put a complaint in to the service provider.

 Wider society People may feel awkward or embarrassed if they witness discrimination.

People may challenge the person discriminating and tell them it is not acceptable.

 Those who discriminate They may feel ashamed if challenged about their behaviour.

They may lose their job.

Using the table below, explain in your own words what each term means. Give one example from care practice to illustrate your explanations.


Explanation Example


Recognising the differences in individuals and being positive about those differences and respecting them.An employer working with an employee to create a flexible working pattern to accommodate their childcare requirements.


Giving all individuals equal opportunities and access  regardless of their gender, gender reassignment, age, disability, religion, beliefs, sexual orientation and race.Replacing steps with a ramp at the library so both able-bodied and people in wheelchairs can access the facility.


Recognising that although everybody is different, we are all human beings and each individual has the right to feel included in a group, regardless of their characteristics.Ensuring a workshop on sexual health includes information about both heterosexual and homosexual sexual health.


Prejudices or less favourable treatment of an individual based on a group that they belong to.Telling a male support worker that they cannot work with a female client based solely on their gender.

Write a brief account that describes practice which excludes the individual and is discriminatory.

Discriminatory practices are those which exclude certain individuals either directly or indirectly. This could be as subtle as not offering culturally acceptable foods (such as kosher, halal or vegetarian options) or as blatant as assuming a homosexual individual will not want to play football. Similarly, you should not ask only female individuals if they would like to take part in an activity that has historically been a woman’s role, such as cooking or sewing – this behaviour may make the males feel excluded from the activity.  It is also discriminatory to assume that an individual is homosexual because they behave effeminately or assume that they don’t need help using a computer because they are Chinese. It is possible to discriminate without realising, such as omitting to ask an individual in a wheelchair to help bring the shopping in because of their restricted mobility. Conversely, it is not acceptable to put the shopping bags on a wheelchair user’s handlebars without asking them first.

Write a belief account that describes examples of inclusive practice.

Inclusive practice is the practice of ensuring that all individuals are included in the services that you provide and promote their diversity and equality with respect and dignity. This could mean ensuring that you ask all clients if they would be involved in an activity and not just the ones you know will want to do it. It could also mean ensuring that there is somebody available to translate for non-english speaking clients or interpret sign language so that they can communicate with the group. In addition to staff with special training, you may to ensure you have access to specialised equipment to allow some individuals access to the same services (such as a wheelchair or pictorial aids) and you may need to make changes to the environment (such as widening doorways or replacing steps with a ramp or lift).

Write a reflective account describing: How your personal preferences, attitudes, heritage and beliefs might impact on working practice. How to ensure that your own practice is inclusive and respects the beliefs, culture, values and preferences of individuals.

As a Buddhist layman, my beliefs are those of loving kindness and gentleness and it is regarded as unskillful practice for me to harm or be involved in the harm of living creatures. Although I do eat meat, I do not believe in the killing or harming of animals for sport.

In contradiction to my own beliefs, I support a client who is an active angler and requires support to go fishing. Consequently I had to wrestle with my own values to be able to support him to do what he enjoys and what is a big part of his life. My only other option was to cease working with this client, which I didn’t want to do as I had a strong bond with him and felt I was making a positive impact on his life. I came to the conclusion that on a professional level, it was my duty to support him in his activities as long as they are legal and safe, and to respect my client’s beliefs and traditions despite what my own beliefs may be. I also felt that it would be wrong to share my own beliefs with him because that might make him feel excluded from going fishing when I was on shift.

Give two examples of how you could raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion.

There are many ways to raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion.

For example, I could print several copies of the leaflet I made for Task Bi and distribute them throughout my company.

I also promote diversity, equality and inclusion in my day-to-day role as support worker, so colleagues others can learn about these topics by observing my behaviour. I am also happy to talk to individuals about these topics and their importance as well as standing up to individuals that are discriminatory.

Diversity, Equality, Inclusion & Discrimination Leaflet

Your work setting is running an induction course for new social care workers in an adult social care setting.  

Create a leaflet which can be used to support this course.

The leaflet must include the following:

a)      A description of the legislation and codes of practice relating to diversity, equality,  inclusion and discrimination.
b)      An explanation of the possible consequences for individuals, social care workers and  others if the legislation and codes of practice are not followed.
c)       A description of how inclusive practice can promote equality and support diversity.
d)       An explanation of how to support others to promote diversity, equality and inclusion.


DIVERSITY – Valuing individual’s differences and talents

EQUALITY – Ensuring all individuals have equal opportunities, regardless of abilities, background or lifestyle

INCLUSION – Making all individuals feel included, valued and respected

DISCRIMINATION – Treating individuals differently or worse based on certain characteristics


The EQUALITY ACT 2010 makes it unlawful to discriminate against someone because of their:


  • Age
  • Disability
  • Race
  • Gender reassignment
  • Pregnancy/Maternity
  • Religion/Belief
  • Sex
  • Sexual Orientation


This Act brings together all previous anti-discriminatory legislation including the equal pay act, the sex discrimination act, the race relations act and the disability discrimination act.


The CARE QUALITY COMMISSION (CQC) that regulates service providers requires that all individuals are treated with dignity and respect, which incorporates that everybody should be treated as equals.

The CODE OF CONDUCT FOR HEALTHCARE SUPPORT WORKERS AND ADULT SOCIAL CARE WORKERS requires that we promote equality and inclusion for all individuals that use our services.

We also have policies prohibiting discrimination in the workplace.


If a care worker does not follow these laws and codes of practice, they should expect to be confronted about it by others. It could also lead to disciplinary action, suspension or dismissal from their role and could even result in legal action being taken against them.

The individual that is discriminated against is likely to feel sad, upset and angry and it could lead to low self-esteem and low self-confidence.

The care provider could be given a warning, lose their registration or be prosecuted.


You can promote equality and support diversity in your day-to-day role by using Inclusive Practice.

This means treating everyone that you work with as individuals and with respect and dignity regardless of their social identity.

This does not mean that you need to treat all individuals in the same way. In fact, it’s quite the opposite! You should try to increase your understanding of other individual’s social identity, recognise the difference and respond appropriately.

You should not make assumptions or promote stereotypes of individuals. Neither should you use language that an individual may find offensive or not be able to understand.

You should also be aware that your own social identity may have an impact on individuals.

Ensure that all individuals are given the same opportunities and try to encourage them to join in and be part of the group.

If you know of any special talents an individual may have, encourage them to share them with the group.


You can support others to promote equality, diversity and inclusion by challenging any discrimination that you encounter and educating people as to the reasons why it is wrong.

You can give people copies of this leaflet or direct them towards the Equality Act, codes of practice or company policies.

The company should also provide training on equality, diversity and inclusion.

By being a good role model you will exemplify best practice and encourage others to do the same.